BACKGROUND: Artesunate, an artemisinin-derived monomer, was reported to inhibit Cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication. We aimed to compare the in-vitro anti-CMV activity of several artemisinin-derived monomers and newly synthesized artemisinin dimers. METHODS: Four artemisinin monomers and two novel artemisinin-derived dimers were tested for anti-CMV activity in human fibroblasts infected with luciferase-tagged highly-passaged laboratory adapted strain (Towne), and a clinical CMV isolate. Compounds were evaluated for CMV inhibition and cytotoxicity.
Beta-cell apoptosis occurs in diabetes mellitus (DM). Heat shock protein (HSP) 27 (human homolog of rodent HSP25) mitigates stress-induced apoptosis but has not been studied in beta-cells. We tested whether HSP27 overexpression attenuates streptozotocin (SZ)-induced DM in vivo and cytokine-induced islet apoptosis in vitro. DM was ascertained by ip glucose tolerance testing, and fasting serum insulin/glucose was measured. Pancreas was stained for insulin, HSP27, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling, and insulin content was measured.
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of truncation of various regions of betaB1-crystallin on its structural properties and stability of heterooligomers formed by wild-type (WT) betaB1 or its deletion mutants with WT betaA3-crystallin.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of resolvin E1 (RvE1) to regulate adenosine diphosphate (ADP) activation of platelets via specific receptors because RvE1 reduces platelet aggregation with certain agonists, including ADP. METHODS AND RESULTS: RvE1 is an eicosapentaenoic acid-derived specialized proresolving mediator generated during the resolution of acute inflammation. RvE1 exhibits potent organ-protective actions in vivo and acts on specific cell types, including platelets.
FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Epidemiological and preclinical studies indicate that polyphenol intake from moderate consumption of red wines may lower the relative risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. There is limited information regarding the specific biological activities and cellular and molecular mechanisms by which wine polyphenolic components might modulate AD. We assessed accumulations of polyphenols in the rat brain following oral dosage with a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine and tested brain-targeted polyphenols for potential beneficial AD disease-modifying activities.
The mechanisms underlying Tau-related synaptic and cognitive deficits and the interrelationships between Tau species, their clearance pathways, and synaptic impairments remain poorly understood. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we examined these interrelationships in aged non-mutant genomic human Tau mice, with established Tau pathology and neuron loss. We also examined how these interrelationships changed with an intervention by feeding mice either a control diet or one containing the brain permeable beta-amyloid and Tau aggregate binding molecule curcumin.
Arsenic, an ancient drug used in traditional Chinese medicine, has attracted worldwide interest because it shows substantial anticancer activity in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) exerts its therapeutic effect by promoting degradation of an oncogenic protein that drives the growth of APL cells, PML-RARalpha (a fusion protein containing sequences from the PML zinc finger protein and retinoic acid receptor alpha).
Retinoic X receptor (RXR) is a promising target for drug discovery against cancer and metabolic syndromes. Here, we identified a specific RXRα antagonist, danthron, from the traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb. Danthron repressed all tested RXRα-involved response element transcription, including the RXRE, PPRE, FXRE, and LXRE. Results from native PAGE and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC)-based assays indicated that danthron bound to the tetrameric RXRα-LBD in a specific stoichimetric ratio, and such a binding could influence the corepressor SMRT affinity to the receptor.
In this research, we have established a drug screening method based on the autophagy signal pathway using the bimolecular fluorescence complementation-fluorescence resonance energy transfer (BiFC-FRET) technique to develop novel anti-influenza A virus (IAV) drugs. We selected Evodia rutaecarpa Benth out of 83 examples of traditional Chinese medicine and explored the mechanisms of evodiamine, the major active component of Evodia rutaecarpa Benth, on anti-IAV activity.