Proteomics

Publication Title: 
Journal of Medicinal Food

Terminalia chebula is a native plant from southern Asia to southwestern China that is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malignant tumors and diabetes. This plant also has antibacterial and immunomodulatory properties. The present study assessed T. chebula extract-dependent protein expression changes in Jurkat cells. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) were performed to assess protein expression and networks, respectively. A comparative proteomic profile was determined in T.

Author(s): 
Das, Nando Dulal
Jung, Kyoung Hwa
Park, Ji Hyun
Choi, Mi Ran
Lee, Hyung Tae
Kim, Moo Sung
Lee, Sang Rin
Chai, Young Gyu
Publication Title: 
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)

Macroautophagy is a self-cannibalistic process that enables cells to adapt to various stresses and maintain energy homeostasis. Additionally, autophagy is an important route for turnover of misfolded proteins and damaged organelles, with important implications in cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Resveratrol and spermidine are able to induce autophagy by affecting deacetylases and acetylases, respectively, and have been found to extend the life-span of model organisms.

Author(s): 
Bennetzen, Martin V.
MariÒo, Guillermo
Pultz, Dennis
Morselli, Eugenia
FÊrgeman, Nils J.
Kroemer, Guido
Andersen, Jens S.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Stem cells are increasingly the focus of translational research as well as having emerging roles in human cellular therapy. To support these uses there is a need for improved methods for in vivo cell localization and tracking. In this study, we examined the effects of cell labeling on the in vitro functionality of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Our results provide a basis for future in vivo studies investigating implanted cell fate and longevity.

Author(s): 
Blaber, Sinead P.
Hill, Cameron J.
Webster, Rebecca A.
Say, Jana M.
Brown, Louise J.
Wang, Shih-Chang
Vesey, Graham
Herbert, Benjamin Ross
Publication Title: 
The Keio Journal of Medicine

Rapid progress is being made in our ability to modify the aging process. Rather than serving as a period of debility and decreasing health, for many people, the later years of life are becoming a period of continued productivity, independence and good health. Progress is also being made in increasing average lifespan. The leading causes of death (cardiovascular disease, cancer, lung disease, diabetes) are the end result of decades-long processes. With current knowledge, it is possible to delay the onset of these diseases.

Author(s): 
Grossman, Terry
Publication Title: 
Phytotherapy research: PTR

The field of genetics, which includes the use of 'omic' technologies, is an evolving area of science that has emerging application in phytotherapy. Omic studies include pharmacogenomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Herbal medicines, as monotherapies, or complex formulations such as traditional Chinese herbal prescriptions, may benefit from omic studies, and this new field may be termed 'herbomics'.

Author(s): 
Sarris, Jerome
Ng, Chee Hong
Schweitzer, Isaac
Publication Title: 
Molecular bioSystems

Psychiatric disorders affect approximately 10% of adults in North-America. The complex nature of these illnesses makes the search for their pathophysiology a challenge. However, studies have consistently shown that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are common features across major psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Nevertheless, little is known about specific targets of oxidation in the brain.

Author(s): 
Andreazza, Ana Cristina
Publication Title: 
Nature Reviews. Genetics

The classical twin study has been a powerful heuristic in biomedical, psychiatric and behavioural research for decades. Twin registries worldwide have collected biological material and longitudinal phenotypic data on tens of thousands of twins, providing a valuable resource for studying complex phenotypes and their underlying biology. In this Review, we consider the continuing value of twin studies in the current era of molecular genetic studies.

Author(s): 
van Dongen, Jenny
Slagboom, P. Eline
Draisma, Harmen H. M.
Martin, Nicholas G.
Boomsma, Dorret I.
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Despite intensive research over many years, the treatment of schizophrenia remains a major health issue. Current and emerging treatments for schizophrenia are based upon the classical dopamine and glutamate hypotheses of disease. Existing first and second generation antipsychotic drugs based upon the dopamine hypothesis are limited by their inability to treat all symptom domains and their undesirable side effect profiles. Third generation drugs based upon the glutamate hypothesis of disease are currently under evaluation but are more likely to be used as add on treatments.

Author(s): 
Winchester, Catherine L.
Pratt, Judith A.
Morris, Brian J.
Publication Title: 
Nature Neuroscience

Over the past decade, rapid advances in epigenomics research have extensively characterized critical roles for chromatin regulatory events during normal periods of eukaryotic cell development and plasticity, as well as part of aberrant processes implicated in human disease. Application of such approaches to studies of the CNS, however, is more recent. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of available tools for analyzing neuroepigenomics data, as well as a discussion of pending challenges specific to the field of neuroscience.

Author(s): 
Maze, Ian
Shen, Li
Zhang, Bin
Garcia, Benjamin A.
Shao, Ningyi
Mitchell, Amanda
Sun, HaoSheng
Akbarian, Schahram
Allis, C. David
Nestler, Eric J.
Publication Title: 
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta

The hippocampus is one of the most essential components of the human brain and plays an important role in learning and memory. The hippocampus has drawn great attention from scientists and clinicians due to its clinical importance in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), non-AD dementia, and epilepsy. Understanding the function of the hippocampus and related disease mechanisms requires comprehensive knowledge of the orchestration of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins.

Author(s): 
Kang, Myoung-Goo
Byun, Kyunghee
Kim, Jae Ho
Park, Nam Hyun
Heinsen, Helmut
Ravid, Rivka
Steinbusch, Harry W.
Lee, Bonghee
Park, Young Mok

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