Diagnoses of bone marrow associated malignancies such as Acute & Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Acute & Chronic Myelogenous (Myeloid) Leukemia, Hodgkin's Lymphoma & Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, and Multiple Myeloma are often missed without a blood test. However, in 2008, Omura Y reported several newly discovered organ representation areas that exist between the lower end of the eyebrows and upper end of the upper eyelid. This space was divided into 5 organ representation areas.
Kindling and behavioural sensitization were probably the first among the animal models of affective disorders, to suggest that genes-environment interactions were likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of these disorders. Cross-sensitization among stressors, drugs of abuse and illness episodes was deemed to be supported by the induction of a series of transcription factors, such as the proto-oncogene c-fos that subsequently alter gene expression by binding at DNA sites and inducing mRNAs for substances that may exert effects over long time periods.
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Chronic social defeat stress in mice produces a susceptible phenotype characterized by several behavioral abnormalities consistent with human depression that are reversed by chronic but not acute exposure to antidepressant medications. Recent work in addiction models demonstrates that the transcription factor ?FosB and protein kinase calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) are co-regulated in nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain reward region implicated in both addiction and depression models including social defeat.
Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse or stress regulates transcription factors, chromatin-modifying enzymes and histone post-translational modifications in discrete brain regions. Given the promiscuity of the enzymes involved, it has not yet been possible to obtain direct causal evidence to implicate the regulation of transcription and consequent behavioral plasticity by chromatin remodeling that occurs at a single gene.
The effects, on normal human subjects, of 3 minutes exposure to electro-magnetic fields (EMFs) emitted from: A) personal computers, B) color television sets, or C) microwave-ovens, or cellular phones were compared by placing the same large sheet of aluminum foil with a square hole or rectangular band-shaped hole at the chest level (or at the side of the head with the cellular phone), with or without grounding the aluminum foil, using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Dysfunction Localization and Molecular Identification Methods with cancer related substances (i.e., Oncogen C-fos Ab2 and mercury in
In previous studies using Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation, we showed that nitrous oxide (N(2)O) activates bulbospinal noradrenergic neurons in rats and that destruction of these neuronal pathways leads to loss of N(2)O antinociceptive action. Based on previous rat studies it has been proposed that these noradrenergic neurons are activated through opioid receptors through the release of endogenous opioid ligands in the periaqueductal gray.
Dexmedetomidine (Dex), an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, is an effective analgesic and sedative drug in adults; however, little information is available about its efficacy in pediatric populations. Some anesthetics exhibit an age-dependent analgesic effect, e.g., nitrous oxide, being relatively ineffective in newborn rats. We investigated the analgesic and hypnotic efficacy of Dex using 6 cohorts of Fischer rats aged 7, 15, 19, 23, and 29 days and adults exposed to either Dex (10 or 50 microg/kg) or saline subcutaneously.
BACKGROUND: Some anaesthetic agents exhibit an age-dependent analgesic effect, for example nitrous oxide, which is ineffective in newborn rats. We investigated whether a similar time dependency existed for the responses to the volatile anaesthetic isoflurane. METHODS: The analgesic and hypnotic properties of isoflurane at various ages was assessed using four cohorts of Fischer rats aged approximately 7, 16, and 28 days and adults (11-12 weeks old).
To investigate the mechanism by which L-type Ca+ channel blockers exerted potentiating effects on pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, the present study was undertaken to determine if the interaction of diltiazem and serotonergic system influences the architecture of pentobarbital sleep in rats and examined c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) and the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). The polysomnogram consisting of EEG and EMG was recorded for analyzing sleep architecture.
BACKGROUND: One underexploited property of anesthetics is their ability to probe neuronal regulation of arousal. At appropriate doses, anesthetics reversibly obtund conscious perception. However, individual anesthetic agents may accomplish this by altering the function of distinct neuronal populations. Previously the authors showed that isoflurane and sevoflurane inhibit orexinergic neurons, delaying reintegration of sensory perception as denoted by emergence. Here the authors study the effects of halothane.