Psychiatry

Publication Title: 
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

Physical activity (PA) is emerging as a safe and effective tool in the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders. PA subtypes include aerobic, resistance, flexibility, neuromotor (involving balance, agility and co-ordination), mind-body (e.g. tai chi, qi gong and yoga) and mixed type trainings. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that PA subtypes can have positive clinical effects, however the effects on the symptomatology may vary according to the PA subtype.

Author(s): 
Eyre, Harris A.
Baune, Bernhard T.
Publication Title: 
Academic Psychiatry: The Journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: As it is increasingly recognized that cultural competence is an essential quality for any practicing psychiatrist, postgraduate psychiatry training programs need to incorporate cultural competence training into their curricula. This article documents the unique approach to resident cultural competence training being developed in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto, which has the largest residency training program in North America and is situated in an ethnically diverse city and country.

Author(s): 
Fung, Kenneth
Andermann, Lisa
Zaretsky, Ari
Lo, Hung-Tat
Publication Title: 
Journal of Affective Disorders

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been increasingly used as an adjunctive treatment to pharmacotherapy for a few psychiatric disorders. However, few studies have investigated the efficacy of MBIs in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of MBIs as an adjunctive treatment in BD. Major electronic databases were independently searched by two authors for controlled and uncontrolled studies which examined the effects of MBIs on psychiatric symptoms in subjects with BD.

Author(s): 
Chu, Che-Sheng
Stubbs, Brendon
Chen, Tien-Yu
Tang, Chia-Hung
Li, Dian-Jeng
Yang, Wei-Cheng
Wu, Ching-Kuan
Carvalho, André F.
Vieta, Eduard
Miklowitz, David J.
Tseng, Ping-Tao
Lin, Pao-Yen
Publication Title: 
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

OBJECTIVE: This review describes the homeopathic analysis of grief and common remedies corresponding to this reaction. Homeopathic descriptions of grief are compared with contemporary psychiatric criteria. DATA SOURCES: Each homeopathic rubric (i.e., symptom) is identified on the basis of a computerized repertory search, grouped according to body systems, and compared with a current set of operational criteria derived from the psychiatric literature. The major homeopathic remedies for grief are identified.

Author(s): 
Davidson, J. R.
Gaylord, S.
Publication Title: 
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity

Physical activity (PA) is emerging as a safe and effective tool in the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders. PA subtypes include aerobic, resistance, flexibility, neuromotor (involving balance, agility and co-ordination), mind-body (e.g. tai chi, qi gong and yoga) and mixed type trainings. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that PA subtypes can have positive clinical effects, however the effects on the symptomatology may vary according to the PA subtype.

Author(s): 
Eyre, Harris A.
Baune, Bernhard T.
Publication Title: 
Integrative Cancer Therapies

Acupuncture is being adopted by cancer patients for a wide range of cancer-related symptoms including highly prevalent psychological symptoms like depression, anxiety, insomnia, and impairment in quality of life. Pharmacological treatment of prevalent symptoms like anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance can contribute to the high chemical burden already carried by cancer patients, creating additional side effects. As a result, patients and providers alike are interested in evidence-based nonpharmacologic alternatives like acupuncture for these symptoms.

Author(s): 
Haddad, Nadia Elisabeth
Palesh, Oxana
Publication Title: 
Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quantify the effects of acupressure on anxiety among adults. METHODOLOGY: RCTs published between January 1997 and February 2014, comparing acupressure with sham control, were identified from the databases Science Citation Index/Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, PubMed and PsycINFO. Meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed and the magnitude of the overall effect size was calculated for the anxiety outcome.

Author(s): 
Au, Doreen W. H.
Tsang, Hector W. H.
Ling, Paul P. M.
Leung, Christie H. T.
Ip, P. K.
Cheung, W. M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psychosomatic Research

Psychiatric education for the medical student addresses itself to students' and potential non-psychiatric physicians' needs in identifying and addressing the biopsychosocial aspects of patient care. The education is best based on the clinical method, using the extended interview to identify the relationship of environmental and social circumstances to the anlage, onset and reaction to illness in the patient. Within this pattern, genetic, epigenetic developmental patterns, earlier illness, behavioral and personality patterns are identified.

Author(s): 
Kimball, C. P.
Publication Title: 
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics

Fine-tuning of neuronal connections during development is regulated through environmental interactions. Some fine-tuning occurs through changes in gene expression and/or epigenetic gene-specific DNA methylation states. DNA methylation occurs by transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine to cytosine residues in the dinucleotide sequence CpG. Although CpG sequences spread throughout the genome are usually heavily methylated, those occurring in CpG islands in the promoter regions of genes are less methylated.

Author(s): 
Abdolmaleky, Hamid Mostafavi
Smith, Cassandra L.
Faraone, Stephen V.
Shafa, Rahim
Stone, William
Glatt, Stephen J.
Tsuang, Ming T.
Publication Title: 
Genes, Brain, and Behavior

The results of a large body of candidate gene studies of behavioural and psychiatric phenotypes have been largely inconclusive, with most findings failing to replicate reliably.

Author(s): 
MunafÚ, M. R.

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