Improvements in stable, or dispositional, mindfulness are often assumed to accrue from mindfulness training and to account for many of its beneficial effects. However, research examining these assumptions has produced mixed findings, and the relation between dispositional mindfulness and mindfulness training is actively debated.
Interdisciplinary study of telomere length, polymorphism of genes of renin-angiotensin (ACE) and serotonin (5HTR2A and 5HTTPR) systems in population of aged and old inhabitants of the North-West of Russia was conducted, in their relations to data from clinical and geriatric anamnesis, and psychological functioning. Regular link between telomere length and respondent's age was demonstrated in subgroups of old respondents and long-livers, by method of factor analysis.
Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more "comfort food" (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to regulate satiety.
OBJECTIVE: Physically active individuals have lower rates of morbidity and mortality, and recent evidence indicates that physical activity may be particularly beneficial to those experiencing chronic stress. The tendency to ruminate increases and prolongs physiological stress responses, including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses as indexed by cortisol reactivity to stressful experiences.
Psychoanalytic theorists concerned with substance abuse suggest that the affect tolerance and affect expression of addicts are impaired due to preverbal influences. However, psychoanalytic contributions have largely been limited to clinical speculations and case study reports. The present study investigated the hypotheses that opiate abusers will demonstrate more impaired affect tolerance and affect expression than cocaine abusers, and that both groups would appear more impaired than a sample of normals.
BACKGROUND: A significant association between parental PTSD and the occurrence of PTSD in offspring has been noted, consistent with the idea that risk for the development of PTSD is transmitted from parent to child. Two recent reports linking maternal PTSD and low offspring cortisol prompted us to examine the relative contributions of maternal vs. paternal PTSD in the prediction of PTSD and other psychiatric diagnoses in offspring.
It has been suggested that serotonergic hypofunction and serotonergic pathway genes underlie the somatic symptoms of somatoform disorders. We examined a variety of serotonin-related gene polymorphisms to determine whether undifferentiated somatoform disorder is associated with specific serotonin-related gene pathways. Serotonin-related polymorphic markers were assessed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. One hundred and two patients with undifferentiated somatoform disorder and 133 healthy subjects were enrolled.
BACKGROUND: This research was conducted to examine whether people high in emotional intelligence (EI) have greater well-being than people low in EI. METHOD: The Situational Test of Emotion Management, Scales of Psychological Well-being, and Day Reconstruction Method were completed by 131 college students. RESULTS: Responses to the Situational Test of Emotion Management were strongly related to eudaimonic well-being as measured by responses on the Scales of Psychological Well-being (r=.54).
The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science
The Ryle Marital Patterns Test measures the affection and domination aspects of marriage. Its original administration illustrated a partial association between poor marital adjustment (as measured by low affection scores and non-egalitarian domination scores) and neuroticism (as measured by CMI score). The present paper confirms these associations using a group of suburban women defined as neurotic by their GP. Related studies suggest similar patterns.
Previous studies which have used the Marital Patterns Test (Ryle, 1966) have shown that although it has potential in several areas of research, some items of the test are suspect. The validity and internal reliability of several items on the affection scales had particularly been questioned. Internal consistency analysis was used to examine the affection and domination scales for 81 wives and 77 husbands. Resulting recommendations included the exclusion of three affection items, and one item from each of the husband and wife forms of the domination scale.