Psychology

Publication Title: 
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

Organisms have evolved neuroendocrine and metabolic response systems to enhance survival during periods of food shortage, which occur frequently in nature. The anti-aging effect of caloric restriction (CR) might derive from these adaptive responses to maximize organism survival. The present article discusses the potential role for leptin, a hormone secreted from adipocytes, as a key signal that induces the adaptive responses relevant to CR.

Author(s): 
Shimokawa, I.
Higami, Y.
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

Biogerontology is the study of the aging of biological systems. This review addresses the relationship between chemistry and biology during aging, proposing that chemistry is responsible for the aging of biological systems. In the continuing struggle between chemistry and biology, chemistry is always the short-term, tactical winner--death of the individual is inevitable. However, barring the extinction of species, biology is the long-term, strategic victor--life survives, and the struggle continues.

Author(s): 
Baynes, J. W.
Publication Title: 
FEBS letters

Strains of Caenorhabditis elegans mutant for clk-1 exhibit a 20-40% increase in mean lifespan. clk-1 encodes a mitochondrial protein thought to be either an enzyme or regulatory molecule acting within the ubiquinone biosynthesis pathway. Here CLK-1 is shown to be related to the ubiquinol oxidase, alternative oxidase, and belong to the functionally diverse di-iron-carboxylate protein family which includes bacterioferritin and methane mono-oxygenase.

Author(s): 
Rea, S.
Publication Title: 
Child Development

Six match-to-sample picture/object selection experiments were designed to explore children's knowledge about superordinate words (e.g., "food") and how they acquire this knowledge. Three factors were found to influence the learning and extension of superordinate words in 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 230): The number of standards (one versus two), the type of standards presented (from different basic-level categories versus from the same basic-level category), and the nature of the object representations used (pictures versus objects).

Author(s): 
Liu, J.
Golinkoff, R. M.
Sak, K.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cellular Physiology

Normal human fibroblasts in culture have a limited lifespan, ending in replicative senescence. Introduction of SV40 sequences encoding large T antigen and small t antigen into pre-senescent cells results in an extension of lifespan for an additional 20-30 population doublings.

Author(s): 
Macera-Bloch, Lisa
Houghton, JeanMarie
Lenahan, Melanie
Jha, Krishna K.
Ozer, Harvey L.
Publication Title: 
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Disorders: Official Publication of the World Federation of Neurology, Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hNT neuron transplants on motor neuron function in SOD1 (G93A) mice when motor deficits were already apparent. METHOD: The hNT neurons were implanted into L(4)-L(5) segments of the ventral horn spinal cord of mice at 15-16 weeks of age: either G93A mice, transgenic mice carrying the normal allele for human SOD1 gene (hTg), or control wild type mice (wt). Behavioral tests (rotorod, beam balance, extension reflex, footprint) were performed prior to transplantation and at weekly intervals afterwards.

Author(s): 
Garbuzova-Davis, S.
Willing, A. E.
Milliken, M.
Saporta, S.
Sowerby, B.
Cahill, D. W.
Sanberg, P. R.
Publication Title: 
The EMBO journal

The yeast Sir2 protein mediates chromatin silencing through an intrinsic NAD-dependent histone deacetylase activity. Sir2 is a conserved protein and was recently shown to regulate lifespan extension both in budding yeast and worms. Here, we show that SIRT1, the human Sir2 homolog, is recruited to the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear bodies of mammalian cells upon overexpression of either PML or oncogenic Ras (Ha-rasV12). SIRT1 binds and deacetylates p53, a component of PML nuclear bodies, and it can repress p53-mediated transactivation.

Author(s): 
Langley, Emma
Pearson, Mark
Faretta, Mario
Bauer, Uta-Maria
Frye, Roy A.
Minucci, Saverio
Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe
Kouzarides, Tony
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Oncology

Retroviral infection of hTERT, the catalytic component of telomerase, into BJ fibroblasts (population doubling 28) resulted in reconstitution of telomerase activity, telomere maintenance, and extension of in vitro lifespan. The hTERT-infected cells also exhibited increased growth rate and colony forming efficiency relative to controls, while remaining contact-inhibited and maintaining a p53-mediated damage response following gamma-irradiation.

Author(s): 
Forsythe, Heidi L.
Elmore, Lynne W.
Jensen, Keith O.
Landon, Melissa R.
Holt, Shawn E.
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

Aging is a universal biological phenomenon in eukaryotes, but why and how we age still remain mysterious. It would be of great biological interest and practical importance if we could uncover the molecular mechanism of aging, and find a way to delay the aging process while maintaining physical and mental strengths of youth. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) such as SIR2 and RPD3 are known to be involved in the extension of lifespan in yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans.

Author(s): 
Chang, Karen T.
Min, Kyung-Tai
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

P. anserina mutants with impairments in complex IV (COX) of the respiratory chain are characterized by an increase in lifespan. Examples are the nuclear grisea mutant with a moderate lifespan extension (60%) and the immortal extranuclear ex1 mutant. Here we report data demonstrating that in mutant ex1 the level of the alternative oxidase (PaAOX) is significantly higher than in mutant grisea. PaAOX levels appear to be reversely dependent on COX activity.

Author(s): 
Borghouts, Corina
Scheckhuber, Christian Q.
Werner, Alexandra
Osiewacz, Heinz D.

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