Many patients with Alzheimer's disease will develop agitation at later stages of the disease, which constitutes one of the most challenging and distressing aspects of dementia. Recently, nonpharmacological therapies have become increasingly popular and have been proven to be effective in managing the behavioral symptoms (including agitation) that are common in the middle or later stages of dementia. These therapies seem to be a good alternative to pharmacological treatment to avoid unpleasant side effects.
OVERVIEW: Hospitalized patients who are suffering from cognitive impairment, delirium, suicidal ideation, traumatic brain injury, or another behavior-altering condition are often placed under continuous observation by designated "sitters." These patients may become agitated, which can jeopardize their safety even when a sitter is present. This quality improvement project was based on the hypothesis that agitation can be decreased by engaging these patients in individualized therapeutic activities.
Assessment of the physiological effects of physical and emotional stress has been hampered by a lack of suitable laboratory techniques. Since hypnosis can be used safely to induce specific emotional states of considerable intensity, we studied the effect on distal colonic motility of three hypnotically induced emotions (excitement, anger, and happiness) in 18 patients aged 20-48 years with irritable bowel syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Emergence agitation (EA) and negative postoperative behavioral changes (NPOBC) are common in children, although the etiology remains unclear. We investigated whether longer times under deep hypnosis as measured by Bispectral Index (BIS) monitoring would positively correlate with a greater incidence of EA in the PACU and a greater occurrence of NPOBC in children after discharge. METHODS: We enrolled 400 children, 1-12 years old, scheduled for dental procedures under general anesthesia.
The relevant literature since the 1940s has been collected from the Medline database, using the keywords: child, operation, anxiety, distress, postoperative complications, preparation, premedication, parental presence, prevention. Preoperative anxiety, emergence delirium, and postoperative behavior changes are all manifestations of psychological distress in children undergoing surgery. Preoperative anxiety is most prominent during anaesthesia induction. Emergence delirium is frequent and somewhat independent of pain levels.
The British Journal of Clinical Psychology / the British Psychological Society
Aromatherapy and massage could provide a useful addition to psychological therapeutic interventions with clients suffering from dementia. The effects of aromatherapy and massage on disturbed behaviour in four individuals with severe dementia were evaluated using a single-case research design. Each participant received 10 treatment sessions of aromatherapy, aromatherapy and massage combined, and massage alone. The effects on each individual's behaviour in the hour following treatment were assessed against 10 'no treatment' control sessions.
A random controlled trial of the relaxing effects of an aromatherapy massage on disordered behaviour in dementia was conducted. Twenty-one patients were randomly allocated into one of three conditions, aromatherapy and massage (AM), conversation and aromatherapy (CA) and massage only (M). AM showed the greatest reduction in the frequency of excessive motor behaviour of all three conditions. This reached statistical significance between the hours of three and four pm (p < 0.05).
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether aromatherapy with lavender oil is effective in the treatment of agitated behaviour in patients with severe dementia. DESIGN: A placebo controlled trial with blinded observer rater. SETTING: A long-stay psychogeriatric ward. PATIENTS: Fifteen patients meeting ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for severe dementia and suffering from agitated behaviour defined as a minimum score of three points on the Pittsburgh Agitation Scale (PAS).