Psychomotor Performance

Publication Title: 
Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the processing time and neuromuscular delay required to extract and process sensory information from the ankle in order to coordinate an upper extremity movement sequence. METHODS: Nineteen able-bodied subjects were tested on their ability to perform a motor task that involved extension of their left index finger when their left ankle was passively plantar flexed at random velocities through a predetermined target angle. RESULTS: We found that the able-bodied subjects were able to adjust their finger responses up to ankle velocities of 70 degrees /s (300 ms).

Author(s): 
Shields, Richard K.
Madhavan, Sangeetha
Cole, Keith R.
Brostad, Jared D.
Demeulenaere, Jeanne L.
Eggers, Christopher D.
Otten, Patrick H.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Neurological Sciences

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease which is caused by degeneration of motor neurons in the central nervous system. The incidence of ALS is higher in men than women, but the female advantage disappears with increased age. Here, we report evidence that the female advantage is due to the protective role of estrogen. In an ALS mouse model carrying the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (hSOD1) G93A transgene, ovariectomy did not alter the onset age of the disease while reducing the female lifespan by 7 days and making it comparable to that of the male transgenic mice.

Author(s): 
Choi, Chan-Il
Lee, Young-Don
Gwag, Byoung Joo
Cho, Sung Ig
Kim, Sung-Soo
Suh-Kim, Haeyoung
Publication Title: 
Depression and Anxiety

BACKGROUND: Scant research has examined the effect of neuropsychological (NP) functioning on treatment outcome in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study sought to address this gap in existing research. METHODS: A total of 63 youths were included in this study and asked to complete the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and specific subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III).

Author(s): 
Flessner, Christopher A.
Allgair, Amy
Garcia, Abbe
Freeman, Jennifer
Sapyta, Jeffrey
Franklin, Martin E.
Foa, Edna
March, John
Publication Title: 
Experimental Brain Research

Neck muscle vibration (NMV) during upright standing is known to induce forward leaning, which has been explained as a global response to the (illusory) perception of a lengthening of the dorsal neck muscles. However, the effects of NMV both at the level of individual joints and on whole-body postural coordination, and its potential modulation by vision, have not yet been analyzed in detail. Eight healthy young adult participants completed a total of ten trials each, with a 10-s period of unperturbed standing followed by a 10-s period of NMV.

Author(s): 
Verrel, Julius
Cuisinier, RÈmy
Lindenberger, Ulman
Vuillerme, Nicolas
Publication Title: 
Aging

Individuals from families recruited for the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n= 4559) were examined and compared to individuals from other cohorts to determine whether the recruitment targeting longevity resulted in a cohort of individuals with better health and function. Other cohorts with similar data included the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the New England Centenarian Study. Diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease and peripheral artery disease tended to be less common in LLFS probands and offspring compared to similar aged persons in the other cohorts.

Author(s): 
Newman, Anne B.
Glynn, Nancy W.
Taylor, Christopher A.
Sebastiani, Paola
Perls, Thomas T.
Mayeux, Richard
Christensen, Kaare
Zmuda, Joseph M.
Barral, Sandra
Lee, Joseph H.
Simonsick, Eleanor M.
Walston, Jeremy D.
Yashin, Anatoli I.
Hadley, Evan
Publication Title: 
Neurobiology of Disease

An increasing body of evidence indicates a role for oligomers of the amyloid-? peptide (A?) in the neurotoxicity of this peptide and the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several neurotoxic oligomeric forms of A? have been noted ranging from the larger Amyloid ?-Derived Diffusible Ligands (ADDLs) to smaller trimers and dimers of A?. More recently a dodecameric form of A? with a 56 kDa molecular weight, denoted A?*56, was shown to cause memory impairment in AD model mice.

Author(s): 
Scherzer-Attali, R.
Farfara, D.
Cooper, I.
Levin, A.
Ben-Romano, T.
Trudler, D.
Vientrov, M.
Shaltiel-Karyo, R.
Shalev, D. E.
Segev-Amzaleg, N.
Gazit, E.
Segal, D.
Frenkel, D.
Publication Title: 
Epigenomics

Preterm birth is associated with medical problems affecting the neuroendocrine system, altering cortisol levels resulting in negative effects on newborn neurobehavior. Newborn neurobehavior is regulated by DNA methylation of NR3C1 and HSD11B2. AIM: Determine if methylation of HSD11B2 and NR3C1 is associated with neurobehavioral profiles in preterm infants. PATIENTS & METHODS: Neurobehavior was measured before discharge from the hospital in 67 preterm infants. Cheek swabs were collected for DNA extraction.

Author(s): 
Lester, Barry M.
Marsit, Carmen J.
Giarraputo, James
Hawes, Katheleen
LaGasse, Linda L.
Padbury, James F.
Publication Title: 
Disability and Rehabilitation

PURPOSE: To study determinants of romantic relationships and sexual activity of young adults with cerebral palsy (CP), focusing on personal and environmental factors. METHOD: A cohort study was performed with 74 young adults (46 men; 28 women) aged 20-25 years (SD 1.4) with CP (49% unilateral CP, 76% GMFCS level I, 85% MACS level I). All participants were of normal intelligence. Romantic relationships, sexual activity (outcome measures), personal and environmental factors (associated factors) were assessed. Associations were analyzed using logistic regression analyses.

Author(s): 
Wiegerink, Diana J. H. G.
Stam, Henk J.
Ketelaar, Marjolijn
Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.
Roebroeck, Marij E.
Publication Title: 
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Emotionally salient information is well attended and remembered. It has been shown that infatuated individuals have increased attention for their beloved. It is unknown whether this attention bias generalizes to information related to the beloved. Moreover, infatuated individuals report to remember trivial things about their beloved, but this has not yet been tested empirically. In two studies, we tested whether infatuated individuals have increased attention and memory for beloved-related information.

Author(s): 
Langeslag, Sandra J. E.
Olivier, Jamie R.
Kˆhlen, Martine E.
Nijs, Ilse M.
Van Strien, Jan W.
Publication Title: 
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

In religions where God is portrayed as both loving and wrathful, religious beliefs may be a source of fear as well as comfort. Here, we consider if God's love may be more effective, relative to God's wrath, for soothing distress, but less effective for helping control behavior. Specifically, we assess whether contemplating God's love reduces our ability to detect and emotionally react to conflict between one's behavior and overarching religious standards.

Author(s): 
Good, Marie
Inzlicht, Michael
Larson, Michael J.

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