Psychopathology

Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Bulletin

BACKGROUND: Physical exercise may be valuable for patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders as it may have beneficial effect on clinical symptoms, quality of life and cognition. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using PubMed (Medline), Embase, PsychInfo, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Controlled and uncontrolled studies investigating the effect of any type of physical exercise interventions in schizophrenia spectrum disorders were included. Outcome measures were clinical symptoms, quality of life, global functioning, depression or cognition.

Author(s): 
Dauwan, Meenakshi
Begemann, Marieke J. H.
Heringa, Sophie M.
Sommer, Iris E.
Publication Title: 
Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy

Self-compassion is increasingly explored as a protective factor in relation to psychopathology. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) and its Short Form variant (SCS-SF) are the most widely used instruments for measuring this psychological construct, and previous studies have indeed shown that the total score of this scale is negatively associated with psychopathology.

Author(s): 
Muris, Peter
Petrocchi, Nicola
Publication Title: 
Translational Psychiatry

Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. It is typified by highly variable symptoms, which might be explained by epigenetic regulation of genes in the interval. Using computational algorithms, our laboratory previously predicted that DiGeorge critical region 6 (DGCR6), which lies within the deletion interval, is imprinted in humans. Expression and epigenetic regulation of this gene have not, however, been examined in 22q11DS subjects.

Author(s): 
Das Chakraborty, R.
Chakraborty, D.
Bernal, A. J.
Schoch, K.
Howard, T. D.
Ip, E. H.
Hooper, S. R.
Keshavan, M. S.
Jirtle, R. L.
Shashi, V.
Publication Title: 
Revista Brasileira De Psiquiatria (Sao Paulo, Brazil: 1999)

OBJECTIVE: Advances in our knowledge of mental disorder (MD) genetics have contributed to a better understanding of their pathophysiology. Nonetheless, several questions and doubts persist. Recent studies have focused on environmental influences in the development of MDs, and the advent of neuroscientific methodologies has provided new perspectives. Early life events, such as childhood stress, may affect neurodevelopment through mechanisms such as gene-environment interactions and epigenetic regulation, thus leading to diseases in adulthood.

Author(s): 
Brietzke, Elisa
Kauer Sant'anna, M·rcia
Jackowski, Andrea
Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo
Bucker, Joanna
Zugman, Andre
Mansur, Rodrigo Barbachan
Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
Publication Title: 
Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

During the past two decades, research concerned with the aetiology of psychopathology has generally progressed along two separate paths: investigations that have characterised the roles played by environmental determinants such as childhood adversity in the development of psychopathology, and those that have focused on neurobiological processes involving genetic and intracellular pathways.

Author(s): 
El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M.
Koenen, Karestan C.
Galea, Sandro
Publication Title: 
Acta Physiologica (Oxford, England)

To consider the evidence that human and animal behaviours are epigenetically programmed by lifetime experiences. Extensive PubMed searches were carried out to gain a broad view of the topic, in particular from the perspective of human psychopathologies such as mood and anxiety disorders. The selected literature cited is complemented by previously unpublished data from the authors' laboratories.

Author(s): 
Patchev, A. V.
Rodrigues, A. J.
Sousa, N.
Spengler, D.
Almeida, O. F. X.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: Childhood maltreatment increases risk for psychopathology. For some highly prevalent disorders (major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder) a substantial subset of individuals have a history of maltreatment and a substantial subset do not. The authors examined the evidence to assess whether those with a history of maltreatment represent a clinically and biologically distinct subtype.

Author(s): 
Teicher, Martin H.
Samson, Jacqueline A.
Publication Title: 
Harvard Review of Psychiatry

LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After participating in this educational activity, the physician should be better able to 1. Identify the biological role of oxytocin in forming attachments. 2. Evaluate the relationship between various neuropsychiatric disorders and oxytocin. 3. Identify clinical implications of using oxytocin to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone integral in parturition, milk letdown, and maternal behaviors that has been demonstrated in animal studies to be important in the formation of pair bonds and in social behaviors.

Author(s): 
Cochran, David M.
Fallon, Daniel
Hill, Michael
Frazier, Jean A.
Publication Title: 
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology

Trajectories toward risk or resilience in psychiatric disorders are influenced by acquired and inherited factors. More recently, evidence from rodent studies suggest that acquired risk factors can be transmitted through non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms to subsequent generations, potentially contributing to a cycle of disease and disease risk. Here, we review examples of transmission of environmental factors across generations and illustrate the difference between behavioral transmission and epigenetic inheritance.

Author(s): 
Klengel, Torsten
Dias, Brian G.
Ressler, Kerry J.
Publication Title: 
The Psychoanalytic Quarterly

The development of the concept of identification in the work of Freud, Ferenczi, and Abraham is reviewed and analyzed from the standpoint of the development of the psychoanalytic object concept in general. Problems in the theory are seen to be related to ambiguity of the terms, ego and object, especially as reflected in the idea of introjection. The concept of identification, on the other hand, is shown to have undergone consistent evolution and expansion.

Author(s): 
Compton, A.

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