Psychophysics

Publication Title: 
Schizophrenia Bulletin

Among the sensory modalities, olfaction is most closely associated with the frontal and temporal brain regions that are implicated in schizophrenia and most intimately related to the affective and mnemonic functions that these regions subserve. Olfactory probes may therefore be ideal tools through which to assess the structural and functional integrity of the neural substrates that underlie disease-related cognitive and emotional disturbances.

Author(s): 
Turetsky, Bruce I.
Hahn, Chang-Gyu
Borgmann-Winter, Karin
Moberg, Paul J.
Publication Title: 
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine

That love promotes health surprises few people, yet the scientific study of love and physical health is in its infancy. Because love has many facets and is manifested in many ways, as described here, it was banned from Western science, which insisted on observable and simple independent variables. This article presents data indicating the salutary effects of love on physical health. These data are from several areas-psychology, sociology, medicine, epidemiology, and healing-and together form a foundation for understanding and enhancing love and its effects.

Author(s): 
Green, J.
Shellenberger, R.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Psychology

Hypnotic deafness was suggested for 1000 Hz tones presented in random orders at seven intensities between 17 and 70 db. Subjects were 70 college students stratified into four levels of hypnotic susceptibility, ranging from low to high. Four conditions were presented within a single session. Two conditions tested normal hearing, one in waking and one in hypnosis; two tested reported loudness of the tones as reduced by hypnotic suggestion. The method of magnitude estimation was employed. Hearing reduction was found to correlate .59 with hypnotic susceptibility in the total sample.

Author(s): 
Crawford, H. J.
Macdonald, H.
Hilgard, E. R.
Publication Title: 
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)

Hypnotherapeutical technique were often used for control of pain. However, an objective examination of this phenomenon was seldom carried out. The aim of the study was the psychophysiological objectivation of the effect of experimental induced pain and the elimination of pain by means of hypnosis. 22 healthy volunteers (11 female and 11 male) aged between 22 and 35 years participated in the study.

Author(s): 
Grünberger, J.
Linzmayer, L.
Walter, H.
Höfer, C.
Gutierrez-Lobos, K.
Stöhr, H.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

It is well accepted that pain is a multidimensional experience, but little is known of how the brain represents these dimensions. We used positron emission tomography (PET) to indirectly measure pain-evoked cerebral activity before and after hypnotic suggestions were given to modulate the perceived intensity of a painful stimulus. These techniques were similar to those of a previous study in which we gave suggestions to modulate the perceived unpleasantness of a noxious stimulus.

Author(s): 
Hofbauer, R. K.
Rainville, P.
Duncan, G. H.
Bushnell, M. C.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Implementing a recall paradigm without hypnosis, we use functional MRI (fMRI) to explore and compare nociceptive and centrally-driven pain experiences. We posit that a trace of a recent nociceptive event can be used to create sensory-re-experiencing of pain that can be qualified in terms of intensity and vividness. Fifteen healthy volunteers received three levels of thermal stimuli (warm, low pain and high pain) and subsequently were asked to recall and then rate this experience.

Author(s): 
Fairhurst, Merle
Fairhurst, Katherine
Berna, Chantal
Tracey, Irene
Publication Title: 
Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: The Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)

In this work it is suggested that color induces phenomenal wholeness, part-whole organization and fragmentation. The phenomenal wholeness subsumes the set of its main attributes: homogeneity, continuity, univocality, belongingness, and oneness. If color induces wholeness, it can also induce fragmentation. Therefore, in order to understand the role played by color within the process of part-whole organization, color is used both as a wholeness and as a fragmentation tool, thus operating synergistically or antagonistically with other wholeness processes.

Author(s): 
Pinna, Baingio
Uccula, Arcangelo
Tanca, Maria
Publication Title: 
The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

Growing evidence demonstrates that psychological risk variables can contribute to physical disease. In an effort to thoroughly investigate potential etiological origins and optimal interventions, this broad review is divided into five sections: the stress response, chronic diseases, mind-body theoretical models, psychophysiological interventions, and integrated health care solutions. The stress response and its correlation to chronic disorders such as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, autoimmune, metabolic syndrome, and chronic pain are comprehensively explored.

Author(s): 
Purdy, Jana
Publication Title: 
The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

Growing evidence demonstrates that psychological risk variables can contribute to physical disease. In an effort to thoroughly investigate potential etiological origins and optimal interventions, this broad review is divided into five sections: the stress response, chronic diseases, mind-body theoretical models, psychophysiological interventions, and integrated health care solutions. The stress response and its correlation to chronic disorders such as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, autoimmune, metabolic syndrome, and chronic pain are comprehensively explored.

Author(s): 
Purdy, Jana
Publication Title: 
Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

Vigilance is a term with varied definitions but the most common usage is sustained attention or tonic alertness. This usage of vigilance implies both the degree of arousal on the sleep-wake axis and the level of cognitive performance. There are many interacting neural and neurotransmitter systems that affect vigilance. Most studies of vigilance have relied on states where the sleep-wake state is altered, e.g. drowsiness, sleep-deprivation, and CNS-active drugs, but there are factors ranging from psychophysics to motivation that may impact vigilance.

Author(s): 
Oken, B. S.
Salinsky, M. C.
Elsas, S. M.

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