WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychosis and the more specific diagnosis of schizophrenia constitute a major psychiatric disorder which impacts heavily on the self-esteem, functioning and quality of life of those affected. A number of mindfulness therapies have been developed in recent years, showing promising results when used with people with the disorder. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This review of the literature included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs), rather than other typically less robust methods of research (e.g. case studies, noncontrolled studies).
In promoting optimal recovery in persons with psychosis, psychological interventions have become a key element of treatment, with cognitive behavioural therapy being widely recommended in clinical practice guidelines. One key area of development has been the trialling of "third wave" cognitive behavioural interventions, which promote mindfulness, acceptance and compassion as means of change. Trials to date have demonstrated encouraging findings, with beneficial effects observed on measures of psychotic symptoms.
Adapted mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) could be of benefit for people distressed by hearing voices. This paper presents a systematic review of studies exploring this possibility and we ask five questions: (1) Is trait mindfulness associated with reduced distress and disturbance in relation to hearing voices? (2) Are MBIs feasible for people distressed by hearing voices? (3) Are MBIs acceptable and safe for people distressed by hearing voices? (4) Are MBIs effective at reducing distress and disturbance in people distressed by hearing voices?
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions are increasingly studied as a potential treatment for a variety of mental conditions. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions on psychotic symptoms and hospitalization in patients with psychosis. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO were screened from inception through April 2015.
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of mindfulness interventions are being used with individuals with psychosis or schizophrenia, but no known meta-analysis has investigated their effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of mindfulness interventions for psychosis or schizophrenia, we conducted an effect-size analysis of initial studies. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of studies published in journals or in dissertations in PubMED, PsycINFO or MedLine from the first available date until July 25, 2013. REVIEW METHODS: A total of 13 studies (n=468) were included.
The interaction of genetic and environmental factors may affect the course and development of psychotic disorders. We examined whether the effects of childhood trauma on cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia were moderated by the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism, a common genetic variant known to affect cognition and prefrontal dopamine levels. Participants were 429 schizophrenia/schizoaffective cases from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB).
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics: The Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics
Epigenetic effects on psychiatric traits remain relatively under-studied, and it remains unclear what the sizes of individual epigenetic effects may be, or how they vary between different clinical populations. The gene LRRTM1 (chromosome 2p12) has previously been linked and associated with schizophrenia in a parent-of-origin manner in a set of affected siblings (LOD?=?4.72), indirectly suggesting a disruption of paternal imprinting at this locus in these families.
During the last decade and a half, there has been an explosion of data regarding epigenetic changes in schizophrenia. Most initial studies have suggested that schizophrenia is characterized by an overly restrictive chromatin state based on increases in transcription silencing histone modifications and DNA methylation at schizophrenia candidate gene promoters and increases in the expression of enzymes that catalyze their formation. However, recent studies indicate that the pathology is more complex.
Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that lacks a unifying neuropathology, while currently available pharmacological treatments provide only limited benefits to many patients. This review will discuss how the field of neuroepigenetics could contribute to advancements of the existing knowledge on the neurobiology and treatment of psychosis.
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a relatively rare disorder that originates from paternally inherited deletions and maternal disomy (mUPD) within the 15q11-q13 region or alterations in the PWS imprinting center. Evidence is accumulating that mUPD underlies high prevalence of psychosis among PWS patients. Several genes involved in differentiation and survival of neurons as well as neurotransmission known to act in the development of PWS have been also implicated in schizophrenia.