The British Journal of General Practice: The Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Immunisation has proved a highly effective public health policy. However, it has come under public suspicion at times, with large falls in pertussis immunizations in the 1980s and smaller falls in measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine uptake recently. Immunisation scares have also occurred in other countries. This discussion paper explores the concepts of herd immunity, altruism, and informed consent. Historical, quantitative, and qualitative research on the sociology of immunisation is reviewed.
This essay reviews some of the sources of idealism in public health, on the basis of an intellectual journey to Kos (home to Hippocrates and his altruistic legacy), Dresden (where the Deutsches Hygiene Museum illustrates the historical connections between fascism and public health), and Utopia (exemplified by Etienne Cabet's Icarie, a fantasy of an ideal city which has nevertheless been partly realized).
BACKGROUND: In mainland China, the motivation behind voluntary blood donation is a relatively new and understudied behavior. In recent times provincial governments in China have implemented various institutional incentive measures. However, little is known regarding the effectiveness of such measures. This qualitative study investigated the nature and outcomes of some identified institutionalized mechanisms, in particular how these were created and distributed in the form of incentives for voluntary blood donation.
Lay involvement in public health programmes occurs through formalised lay health worker (LHW) and other volunteer roles. Whether such participation should be supported, or indeed rewarded, by payment is a critical question. With reference to policy in England, UK, this paper argues how framing citizen involvement in health only as time freely given does not account for the complexities of practice, nor intrinsic motivations. The paper reports results on payment drawn from a study of approaches to support lay people in public health roles, conducted in England, 2007-9.
BACKGROUND: Change of Kenyan treatment policy for uncomplicated malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was accompanied by revised recommendations promoting presumptive malaria diagnosis in young children and, wherever possible, parasitological diagnosis and adherence to test results in older children and adults. Three years after the policy implementation, health workers' adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment recommendations was evaluated. METHODS: A national cross-sectional, cluster sample survey was undertaken at public health facilities.
BACKGROUND: Effective malaria case-management based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and parasitological diagnosis is a major pillar within the 2007-2012 National Malaria Strategic Plan in the Sudan. Three years after the launch of the strategy a health facility survey was undertaken to evaluate case-management practices and readiness of the health facilities and health workers to implement a new malaria case-management strategy. METHODS: A cross-sectional, cluster sample survey was undertaken at public health facilities in 15 states of Sudan.
International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation
In India, by the second century B.C., Ayurvedic medicine had already taken the momentous step of becoming rational therapeutics. Physicians created a methodology based on the supreme importance of direct observation of natural phenomena and the technique of rational processing of empirical data. However, over the long history of the country, Ayurvedic medicine underwent severe erosion of its knowledge and practice because of profound political, cultural, social, and economic changes. Nevertheless, it was used by the poor because access to Western medicine was denied by the ruling classes.
Traditional medicine (a term used here to denote the indigenous health traditions of the world) and complementary and alternative medicine (T/CAM) have, in the past 10 years, claimed an increasing share of the public's awareness and the agenda of medical researchers. Studies have documented that about half the population of many industrialized countries now use T/CAM, and the proportion is as high as 80% in many developing countries.
PURPOSE: Restorative sleep is clearly linked with well-being in youth with chronic health conditions. This review addresses the methodological quality of non-pharmacological sleep intervention (NPSI) research for youth with chronic health conditions. METHOD: The Guidelines for Critical Review (GCR) and the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP) were used in the review. RESULTS: The search yielded 31 behavioural and 10 non-behavioural NPSI for review. Most studies had less than 10 participants.
In April 1972, "Postal History International" published an article of mine concerning anti-vaccination caricature envelopes, which has led to some correspondence with readers and the discovery of several related items. It seems appropriate, therefore, to summarise the information in these pages, in the hope that this may bring forth knowledgeable comment from others. Details of any foreign propaganda of this sort would be particularly welcome.