BACKGROUND: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in the mechanism of action of isoflurane as they are inhibited at subanesthetic concentrations. Despite clear evidence for nicotinic inhibition at relevant isoflurane concentrations, it is unclear what behavioral result ensues, if any. METHODS: The authors have modeled two behaviors common to all general anesthetics, immobility and hypnosis, as minimum alveolar concentration that prevents movement in response to a supramaximal stimulus (MAC) and loss of righting reflex (LORR).
Bispectral index (BIS) analysis is a method of electroencephalograph (EEG) analysis based on the interfrequency phase relationships of the EEG, designed to quantify anesthetic hypnosis. The BIS was created after concurrent collection of EEG and clinical data from a large number of patients anesthetized with various drugs over a prolonged period and then performing a Fourier analysis followed by a bispectral calculation. The clinical stages of anesthetic depth are very well demonstrated in etherized patients.
INTRODUCTION: We investigated the relationship between bispectral index (BIS, A-2000, Aspect Medical Systems, USA) and end-tidal desflurane concentrations below 1 MAC which is especially the range of interest if desflurane is combined with remifentanil for fast-track anaesthesia. METHODS: With institutional review board approval and written informed consent we investigated 50 adult ASA I-III patients scheduled for minor orthopaedic surgical procedures.
We hypothesized that like bispectral index, entropy may be anesthetic agent specific. We carried out a study to assess the entropy values of different anesthetics at equi-minimal alveolar concentrations (MACs) with air and nitrous oxide as carrier gases. Thirty adult patients undergoing spine surgery were randomized to receive halothane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane, in 2 stages, (a) with air/oxygen mixture (2:1) and (b) in nitrous oxide/oxygen (2:1). Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, response entropy (RE), and state entropy (SE) were noted at 1.0 and 1.5 MACs for each agent.
BACKGROUND: Low mean arterial pressure (MAP) and deep hypnosis have been associated with complications and mortality. The normal response to high minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) fraction of anesthetics is hypotension and low Bispectral Index (BIS) scores. Low MAP and/or BIS at lower MAC fractions may represent anesthetic sensitivity. The authors sought to characterize the effect of the triple low state (low MAP and low BIS during a low MAC fraction) on duration of hospitalization and 30-day all-cause mortality.
OBJECTIVE: To determine bispectral index (BIS) values produced by equipotent concentrations of commonly used volatile anaesthetics. METHODS: Female patients undergoing thyroidectomy were randomly assigned to receive isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane anaesthesia. After induction, anaesthesia was maintained by the volatile agent at 1 minimum alveolar concentration and supplemented with remifentanil infusion. BIS values were recorded during 1?h surgical anaesthesia after a 15?min equilibrium phase.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
RATIONALE: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collectin family member with demonstrated immunomodulatory properties in vitro. We hypothesized that SP-D modulates inflammation during noninfectious lung injury in vivo. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of alveolar SP-D and injury, we studied the responses of transgenic mice expressing varying levels of SP-D to intratracheal bleomycin (ITB).
The metabolism of gamma-tocotrienol (gamma-TE) and gamma-tocopherol (gamma-T) was investigated in human A549 cells and in rats. Similar to gamma-T, A549 cells metabolized gamma-TE to sulfated 9'-, 11'-, and 13'-carboxychromanol and their unconjugated counterparts. After 72-h incubation with the cells, 90% of long-chain carboxychromanols in the culture media from gamma-TE, but <45% from gamma-T, were in the sulfated form.
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Maternally derived inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6 and IL-8, contribute to preterm delivery, low birth weight, and respiratory insufficiency, which are routinely treated with oxygen. Premature infants are at risk for developing adult-onset cardiac, metabolic, and pulmonary diseases. Long-term pulmonary consequences of perinatal inflammation are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that a hostile perinatal environment induces profibrotic pathways resulting in pulmonary fibrosis, including persistently altered lung structure and function.