Pyramidal Cells

Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Neurobiology

Several lines of evidence support the role of an epigenetic-induced GABAergic cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia psychopathology, which is probably dependent on an increase in the expression of DNA-methyltransferase-1 occurring selectively in GABAergic neurons. The key enzyme regulating GABA synthesis, termed glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and the important neurodevelopmental protein called reelin are coexpressed in GABAergic neurons. Upon release, GABA and reelin bind to postsynaptic receptors located in dendrites, somata, or the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons.

Author(s): 
Costa, E.
Davis, J. M.
Dong, E.
Grayson, D. R.
Guidotti, A.
Tremolizzo, L.
Veldic, M.
Publication Title: 
Doklady biological sciences: proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological sciences sections / translated from Russian
Author(s): 
Artyukhina, N. I.
Rusinova, E. V.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

The ionic mechanisms that contribute to general anesthetic actions have not been elucidated, although increasing evidence has pointed to roles for subthreshold ion channels, such as the HCN channels underlying the neuronal hyperpolarization-activated cationic current (Ih). Here, we used conventional HCN1 knockout mice to test directly the contributions of specific HCN subunits to effects of isoflurane, an inhalational anesthetic, on membrane and integrative properties of motor and cortical pyramidal neurons in vitro.

Author(s): 
Chen, Xiangdong
Shu, Shaofang
Kennedy, Dylan P.
Willcox, Sarah C.
Bayliss, Douglas A.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND: In clinical anesthesia, robust surgical stress occasionally causes unintended light anesthesia during operation. To test the hypothesis that neural input condition could modify actions of general anesthetics as a result of presynaptic alteration in the central nervous system, we investigated the mechanisms by which the stimulus frequency modifies synaptic transmission of the rat hippocampus in the presence of general anesthetics.

Author(s): 
Hirota, Koki
Sasaki, Rika
Roth, Sheldon H.
Yamazaki, Mitsuaki
Publication Title: 
Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology = Revue Roumaine De Morphologie Et Embryologie

OBJECTIVE: Bacopa monniera (BM), a traditional Ayurvedic medicine has been used in treatment for a number of disorders, particularly those involving anxiety, intellect and poor memory. The current study examined the effects of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology in adult rats of hippocampal CA3 neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult Wistar (2.5-month-old) rats were designated into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups.

Author(s): 
Vollala, Venkata Ramana
Upadhya, Subramanya
Nayak, Satheesha
Publication Title: 
Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology = Revue Roumaine De Morphologie Et Embryologie

OBJECTIVE: Bacopa monniera (BM), a traditional Ayurvedic medicine has been used in treatment for a number of disorders, particularly those involving anxiety, intellect and poor memory. The current study examined the effects of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology in adult rats of hippocampal CA3 neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult Wistar (2.5-month-old) rats were designated into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups.

Author(s): 
Vollala, Venkata Ramana
Upadhya, Subramanya
Nayak, Satheesha
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine

In Ayurveda,Withania somnifera (WS) is used as a medicine to maintain mental and physical health as well as to enhance memory. In this study, the methanolic extract of WS(mWS) was tested for its electrical influence on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons using a patch clamp technique. In current clamp mode under a high chloride pipette solution, mWS (400 ng/μl) induced remarkable membrane depolarization (9.75 ± 2.54 mV, n = 6) of CA1 neurons. The mWS-induced depolarization was dose-dependent, reproducible, and persistent in the presence of 0.5 μM tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10.17 ± 0.04 mV, n = 6).

Author(s): 
Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad
Park, Soo Joung
Han, Seong Kyu
Publication Title: 
Japanese Journal of Pharmacology

The protective effects of Kamikihi-To (KMK), a traditional Chinese medicine, against cerebral ischemia, hypoxia and anoxia were investigated with various experimental models in mice and gerbils. KMK (2.0 g/kg/day, p.o. for 5 days) significantly prolonged the survival time of mice subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. KMK (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg/day, p.o. for 5 days) also prolonged the survival time of mice injected with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA: 80 mg/kg, i.v.).

Author(s): 
Nishizawa, K.
Inoue, O.
Saito, Y.
Suzuki, A.
Publication Title: 
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of Naoxintong capsules on learning and dysmnesia and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) about vascular dementia (VD) in rats. METHODS: The model of vascular dementia rats were built by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and then the rats were randomly divided into a Naoxintong group (that was traditional Chinese medicine group,TCM group), a Western medicine group, a model group, a sham operation group, and a normal group.

Author(s): 
Liu, Shi-mei
Su, Nan-xiang
He, Ming-da
Wang, Zhe
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Hippocampal neurons play a critical role in learning and memory; however, the effects of environmental mechanical forces on neurite extension and associated underlying mechanisms are largely unexplored, possibly due to difficulties in maintaining central nervous system neurons. Neuron adhesion, neurite length, and mechanotransduction are mainly influenced by the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is often associated with structural scaffolding.

Author(s): 
Chen, Wei-Hsin
Cheng, Sin-Jhong
Tzen, Jason T. C.
Cheng, Chao-Min
Lin, Yi-Wen
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