Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

Eleven Thai isolates and one West African isolate of Plasmodium falciparum were tested for their susceptibility to the Chinese antimalarial drugs artemisinine (qinghaosu) and artemether. The isolates were cultivated by the Trager-Jensen candle-jar technique and exposed to the action of the drugs for 36-48 hours. Artemisinine inhibited growth of most isolates at 10(-7)-10(-8) mol/litre and artemether at 10(-8) mol/litre (with an initial parasitaemia of 0.5-1.0%).

Thaithong, S.
Beale, G. H.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

The anticryptosporidial activity of four macrolides alone and in combination with other antimicrobial agents was investigated against ten clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum recovered from stools of AIDS patients. The susceptibility tests were performed by inoculation of the protozoa on to cell monolayers and determining the parasite count after 72 h incubation at 37 degrees C.

Giacometti, A.
Cirioni, O.
Scalise, G.
Publication Title: 
Epidemiology and Infection

To characterize post-treatment clearance of young forms of Plasmodium falciparum from the blood, three differential equation models, a linear decline, a linear then logarithmic decline, and the Michaelis-Menten (MM) kinetic equation, were fitted to log-transformed serial parasite counts from 30 semi-immune patients with synchronous parasitaemias allocated one of six antimalarial drug regimens. The first two equations were solved analytically. The MM equation was solved numerically using a fifth-order Runge-Kutta method.

Davis, T. M.
Martin, R. B.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

We report here the results of a randomized double blind trial comparing coartemether (CGP56697), a combination of artemether and benflumetol, with pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (P/S). Two hundred eighty-seven children 1-5 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled at two centers in The Gambia between July 1996 and December 1996. Following treatment, children were visited at home every 24 hr until a blood film free of asexual parasites was obtained. Genotyping of parasites was used to distinguish recrudescence from new infections.

von Seidlein, L.
Bojang, K.
Jones, P.
Jaffar, S.
Pinder, M.
Obaro, S.
Doherty, T.
Haywood, M.
Snounou, G.
Gemperli, B.
Gathmann, I.
Royce, C.
McAdam, K.
Greenwood, B.
Publication Title: 
Memórias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

An assay was developed measuring the disruption of rosettes between Plasmodium falciparuminfected (trophozoites) and uninfected erythrocytes by the antimalarial drugs quinine, artemisinin mefloquine, primaquine, pyrimethamine, chloroquine and proguanil. At 4 hr incubation rosettes were disrupted by all the drugs in a dose dependent manner. Artemisinin and quinine were the most effective anti-malarials at disrupting rosettes at their therapeutic concentrations with South African RSA 14, 15, 17 and The Gambian FCR-3 P. falciparum strains.

Goldring, J. D.
Padayachee, T.
Ismail, I.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Using a continuous in vitro culture system, the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artemether and a new antimalarial drug, benflumetol (lumefantrine), alone and in combination, was investigated with a multiresistant strain (T-996) from Thailand and a chloroquine-resistant strain (LS-21) from India.

Hassan Alin, M.
Bjorkman, A.
Wernsdorfer, W. H.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

To define the current efficacy of Fansidar (F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Basel Switzerland) (pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine), primaquine in a high dose, and artesunate for treating acute Plasmodium vivax malaria, we conducted a comparative clinical trial of these 3 drugs in an open-label study. Patients (15-65 years old) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments regimens in a serial order. Ninety percent of the patients were infected at Thailand-Myanmar border.

Wilairatana, P.
Silachamroon, U.
Krudsood, S.
Singhasivanon, P.
Treeprasertsuk, S.
Bussaratid, V.
Phumratanaprapin, W.
Srivilirit, S.
Looareesuwan, S.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

The in vitro activities of doxycycline, chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, artemether, pyrimethamine, and cycloguanil were evaluated against Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Senegal (Dielmo and Ndiop), using an isotopic, micro, drug susceptibility test. The 71-50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for doxycycline ranged from 0.7 to 108.0 microM and the geometric mean IC50 for the 71 isolates was 11.3 microM (95% confidence interval = 9.5-13.4 microM).

Pradines, B.
Spiegel, A.
Rogier, C.
Tall, A.
Mosnier, J.
Fusai, T.
Trape, J. F.
Parzy, D.
Publication Title: 
Tropical medicine & international health: TM & IH

BACKGROUND: Chloroquine (CQ) and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) are the predominantly used antimalarials in Zambia and other parts of East Africa, but increasing resistance of P. falciparum is a major concern. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled. In 43 patients, no prior CQ use could be demonstrated by history and urianalysis (qualitative test, Dill & Glazko) and these patients were given CQ; the other 27 had taken CQ before and received SP.

Bijl, H. M.
Kager, J.
Koetsier, D. W.
van der Werf, T. S.
Publication Title: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization

The development of resistance to drugs poses one of the greatest threats to malaria control. In Africa, the efficacy of readily affordable antimalarial drugs is declining rapidly, while highly efficacious drugs tend to be too expensive. Cost-effective strategies are needed to extend the useful life spans of antimalarial drugs. Observations in South-East Asia on combination therapy with artemisinin derivatives and mefloquine indicate that the development of resistance to both components is slowed down.

Bloland, P. B.
Ettling, M.
Meek, S.


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