Pyruvic Acid

Publication Title: 
Molecular Aspects of Medicine

The SLC16 gene family has fourteen members. Four (SLC16A1, SLC16A3, SLC16A7, and SLC16A8) encode monocarboxylate transporters (MCT1, MCT4, MCT2, and MCT3, respectively) catalysing the proton-linked transport of monocarboxylates such as l-lactate, pyruvate and ketone bodies across the plasma membrane. SLC16A2 encodes a high affinity thyroid hormone transporter (MCT8) and SLC16A10 an aromatic amino acid transporter (TAT1). The substrates and roles of the remaining eight members are unknown.

Author(s): 
Halestrap, Andrew P.
Publication Title: 
Aging Cell

Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, extends the life span of yeast, worms, flies, and mice. Interventions that promote longevity are often correlated with increased insulin sensitivity, and it therefore is surprising that chronic rapamycin treatment of mice, rats, and humans is associated with insulin resistance (J Am Soc Nephrol., 19, 2008, 1411; Diabetes, 00, 2010, 00; Science, 335, 2012, 1638).

Author(s): 
Lamming, Dudley W.
Ye, Lan
Astle, Clinton M.
Baur, Joseph A.
Sabatini, David M.
Harrison, David E.
Publication Title: 
The Indian Journal of Medical Research

The effect of pranayama a controlled breathing practice, on exercise tests was studied in athletes in two phases; sub-maximal and maximal exercise tests. At the end of phase I (one year) both the groups (control and experimental) achieved significantly higher work rate and reduction in oxygen consumption per unit work. There was a significant reduction in blood lactate and an increase in P/L ratio in the experimental group, at rest.

Author(s): 
Raju, P. S.
Madhavi, S.
Prasad, K. V.
Reddy, M. V.
Reddy, M. E.
Sahay, B. K.
Murthy, K. J.
Publication Title: 
The Indian Journal of Medical Research

The effect of pranayama a controlled breathing practice, on exercise tests was studied in athletes in two phases; sub-maximal and maximal exercise tests. At the end of phase I (one year) both the groups (control and experimental) achieved significantly higher work rate and reduction in oxygen consumption per unit work. There was a significant reduction in blood lactate and an increase in P/L ratio in the experimental group, at rest.

Author(s): 
Raju, P. S.
Madhavi, S.
Prasad, K. V.
Reddy, M. V.
Reddy, M. E.
Sahay, B. K.
Murthy, K. J.
Publication Title: 
Annual Review of Food Science and Technology

Sake is an alcoholic beverage of Japan, with a tradition lasting more than 1,300 years; it is produced from rice and water by fermenting with the koji mold Aspergillus oryzae and sake yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Breeding research on sake yeasts was originally developed in Japan by incorporating microbiological and genetic research methodologies adopted in other scientific areas. Since the advent of a genetic paradigm, isolation of yeast mutants has been a dominant approach for the breeding of favorable sake yeasts.

Author(s): 
Kitagaki, Hiroshi
Kitamoto, Katsuhiko
Publication Title: 
The Biochemical Journal

Indy is a gene in Drosophila melanogaster which, when made dysfunctional, leads to an extension of the average adult life span of the organism. The present study was undertaken to clone the Indy gene-product and to establish its functional identity. We isolated a full-length Indy cDNA from a D. melanogaster cDNA library. The cDNA codes for a protein of 572 amino acids [( Drosophila Indy (drIndy)]. In its amino acid sequence, drIndy exhibits comparable similarity to the two known Na(+)-coupled dicarboxylate transporters in mammals; namely, NaDC1 (35% identity) and NaDC3 (34% identity).

Author(s): 
Inoue, Katsuhisa
Fei, You-Jun
Huang, Wei
Zhuang, Lina
Chen, Zhong
Ganapathy, Vadivel
Publication Title: 
Biogerontology

The influence of caloric restriction (CR) on hepatic sorbitol-metabolizing enzyme activities was investigated in young and old mice. Aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were significantly lower in old CR mice than in old controls. Young CR mice showed decreased aldose reductase activity and a trend towards decreased sorbitol dehydrogenase when compared to controls. Metabolites of the pathway, namely sorbitol, glucose and fructose were decreased by CR in young and old mice.

Author(s): 
Hagopian, Kevork
Ramsey, Jon J.
Weindruch, Richard
Publication Title: 
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

We examined in HepG2 cells whether glucose-induced changes in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity could be mediated by SIRT1, an NAD(+)-dependent histone/protein deacetylase that has been linked to the increase in longevity caused by caloric restriction. Incubation with 25 vs. 5mM glucose for 6h concurrently diminished the phosphorylation of AMPK (Thr 172) and ACC (Ser 79), increased lactate release, and decreased the abundance and activity of SIRT1. In contrast, incubation with pyruvate (0.1 and 1mM) for 2h increased AMPK phosphorylation and SIRT1 abundance and activity.

Author(s): 
Suchankova, Gabriela
Nelson, Lauren E.
Gerhart-Hines, Zachary
Kelly, Meghan
Gauthier, Marie-Soleil
Saha, Asish K.
Ido, Yasuo
Puigserver, Pere
Ruderman, Neil B.
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