American Journal of Human Biology: The Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Frontier populations provide exceptional opportunities to test the hypothesis of a trade-off between fertility and longevity. In such populations, mechanisms favoring reproduction usually find fertile ground, and if these mechanisms reduce longevity, demographers should observe higher postreproductive mortality among highly fertile women.
Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) can impact a variety of outcomes in the offspring throughout childhood and persisting into adulthood as shown in human and animal studies. Many of the effects of PNMS on offspring outcomes likely reflect the effects of epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, to the fetal genome.
Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) in animals and humans predicts obesity and metabolic dysfunction in the offspring. Epigenetic modification of gene function is considered one possible mechanism by which PNMS results in poor outcomes in offspring. Our goal was to determine the role of maternal objective exposure and subjective distress on child BMI and central adiposity at 13Ω years of age, and to test the hypothesis that DNA methylation mediates the effect of PNMS on growth. Mothers were pregnant during the January 1998 Quebec ice storm.
Very little work has addressed spirituality in relation to health and well-being using the therapeutic landscape framework. Certainly the larger geographical literature, and specifically that of cultural geography, has identified the spiritual aspects of landscapes/places, and in so doing, has highlighted their importance for both secular groups and broader society alike. The increased recognition of the positive relationship between being spiritually active and health begs the examination of spiritual places reputed for their healing and healthful qualities.
Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
PURPOSE: To determine senior residents' views on the meaning of professionalism and how they learned about it. METHOD: By means of a modified Dillman technique, all senior residents at two faculties of medicine (n = 533) were surveyed about professionalism during the 1998-99 academic year.
The authors compared the personality characteristics of QuÈbec Francophones (25 women, 25 men) and Anglophones (25 women, 25 men) aged 16-64 years. Each participant completed a French or English version of 3 personality inventories that measured (a) extraversion (2 scales), (b) neuroticism (2 scales), (c) psychoticism, (d) lying, (e) openness to experience, (f) conscientiousness, (g) agreeableness, (h) conservatism, and (i) altruism.
Institutional altruism in the form of a public-sector intervention and support for victims and social altruism generated by mutual aid and solidarity among citizens constitute a coming together in a crisis. This coming together and mutual support precipitate a decrease in crime rates during such an event. This paper presents an analysis of daily fluctuations in crime during the prolonged ice storms in Quebec, Canada, in January 1998 that provoked an electrical blackout. Of particular interest are the principal crisis-related influences on daily crime patterns.
This paper discusses the advantages of adopting forms of participatory action research with aboriginal Canadians. Using a recent qualitative study of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among the James Bay Cree, it outlines and discusses the methodology used to construct a form of action research that focused on what meaning the Cree gave to the rising incidence and prevalence of diabetes. In order to understand this perspective, the researchers recruited members of the Cree community as co-researchers in the study.
CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
OBJECTIVE: To determine the referral practices, perceived usefulness, knowledge, prior training and desire for training of general practitioners (GPs) in Quebec with regard to complementary health care services such as acupuncture, chiropractic and hypnosis. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mail survey. SETTING: Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 200 GPs. Of the 146 who responded, 25 were excluded because they were no longer in practice; this left 121 (83%).
This paper is a retrospective study with a five year follow-up which examines the variations in substance use and the determinants of these variations. This exploratory research studied a sub-sample of 22 participants, selected from an initial sample of 197 patients with concurrent substance use and other mental health disorders. At the quantitative level, the statistical analysis shows an improvement in the problematic use of alcohol and drugs but no change in psychological state, health, family and interpersonals relations, as well as employment.