Radiation Tolerance

Publication Title: 
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics

PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of fractionated radiation treatments on the life spans of athymic rats bearing intracerebral brain tumors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: U-251 MG or U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells were implanted into the brains of athymic rats, and the resulting tumors were irradiated once daily with various doses of ionizing radiation for 5 consecutive days or for 10 days with a 2-day break after Day 5. RESULTS: Five daily doses of 1 and 1.5 Gy, and 10 doses of 0.75 and 1 Gy, cured some U-251 MG tumors.

Author(s): 
Ozawa, Tomoko
Faddegon, Bruce A.
Hu, Lily J.
Bollen, Andrew W.
Lamborn, Kathleen R.
Deen, Dennis F.
Publication Title: 
Radiation Research

FancD2 plays a central role in the human Fanconi anemia DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. Fancd2(-/-) mice exhibit many features of human Fanconi anemia including cellular DNA repair defects. Whether the DNA repair defect in Fancd2(-/-) mice results in radiologic changes in all cell lineages is unknown. We measured stress of hematopoiesis in long-term marrow cultures and radiosensitivity in clonogenic survival curves, as well as comet tail intensity, total antioxidant stores and radiation-induced gene expression in hematopoietic progenitor compared to bone marrow stromal cell lines.

Author(s): 
Berhane, Hebist
Epperly, Michael W.
Goff, Julie
Kalash, Ronny
Cao, Shaonan
Franicola, Darcy
Zhang, Xichen
Shields, Donna
Houghton, Frank
Wang, Hong
Wipf, Peter
Parmar, Kalindi
Greenberger, Joel S.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

Hardly an aspect of aging is more important than an organism's ability to withstand stress or to resist both internally and externally imposed insults. We know that as organisms loose their ability to resist these insults, aged organisms suffer more than the young. Therefore, a prime strategy for an organism's survival has been the evolutionarily adapted defense systems that guard against insult. For better survivability, an organism's defense system must be maximized to its full effect through well-coordinated networks of diverse biologically responsive elements.

Author(s): 
Yu, B. P.
Chung, H. Y.
Publication Title: 
Radiation Oncology (London, England)

OBJECTIVE: Cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women worldwide and radiotherapy remains its predominant therapeutic treatment. Artesunate (ART), a derivative of artemisinin, has shown radiosensitization effect in previous studies. However, such effects of ART have not yet been revealed for cervical cancer cells. METHODS: The effect of ART on radiosensitivity of human cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa was assessed using the clonogenic assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis alterations were analyzed by flow cytometry.

Author(s): 
Luo, Judong
Zhu, Wei
Tang, Yiting
Cao, Han
Zhou, Yuanyuan
Ji, Rong
Zhou, Xifa
Lu, Zhongkai
Yang, Hongying
Zhang, Shuyu
Cao, Jianping
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

The effective use of radiotherapy in cancer cure and palliation is compromised by the side-effects resulting from radiosensitivity of bordering normal tissues, which are invariably exposed to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation during treatment. In this situation, use of radioprotective compounds that can protect normal tissues against radiation injury are of immense use. In addition to protecting normal tissue these compounds will also permit use of higher radiation doses to obtain better cancer control and possible cure.

Author(s): 
Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath
Bhat, Harshith P.
Pereira, Manisha Maria
Mathias, Nishan
Venkatesh, Ponemone
Publication Title: 
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology

This chapter gives an overview of the radioprotective and radiosensitizing effect of curcumin. Ionizing radiations interact with biological molecules inducing radiolytic products like e(aq), *OH, *H, -OH, +H, O2, and peroxides. These free radicals damage important biomolecules and subsequently inflict deleterious effects in the organism.

Author(s): 
Jagetia, Ganesh C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

The effective use of radiotherapy in cancer cure and palliation is compromised by the side-effects resulting from radiosensitivity of bordering normal tissues, which are invariably exposed to the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation during treatment. In this situation, use of radioprotective compounds that can protect normal tissues against radiation injury are of immense use. In addition to protecting normal tissue these compounds will also permit use of higher radiation doses to obtain better cancer control and possible cure.

Author(s): 
Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath
Bhat, Harshith P.
Pereira, Manisha Maria
Mathias, Nishan
Venkatesh, Ponemone
Publication Title: 
Integrative Cancer Therapies

The use of ionizing radiation, which is the cornerstone of cancer treatment, is compromised by the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A chemical that can give selective benefit to the normal cells against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation has been a long-sought goal. However, most of the compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side effects, and high cost.

Author(s): 
Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath
Meera, Sharake
Vaishnav, Lalit Kumar
Rao, Suresh
Palatty, Princy Louis
Publication Title: 
Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals

Our previous studies have shown that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) could physically associate with the retinoblastoma (RB) protein via an LXCXE (leucine-X-cysteine-X-glutamic; X=any amino acid) motif. An identical LXCXE motif is present in the HMGB1-3 protein sequences, whereas a near-consensus LXCXD (leucine-X-cysteine-X-asparagine; X=any amino acid) motif is found in the HMGB4 protein.

Author(s): 
Wang, Li-Li
Meng, Qing-Hui
Jiao, Yang
Xu, Jia-Ying
Ge, Chun-Min
Zhou, Ju-Ying
Rosen, Eliot M.
Wang, Hai-Chao
Fan, Sai-Jun
Publication Title: 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)

Exposure of mice to UV radiation results in suppression of the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response. Here, we report that the UV-induced suppression of CHS is associated with increases in the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and PGE2 receptors in the exposed skin. UV radiation-induced suppression of CHS was inhibited by topical treatment of the skin with celecoxib or indomethacin (inhibitors of COX-2) or AH6809 (an EP2 antagonist). Moreover, mice deficient in COX-2 were found to be resistant to UV-induced suppression of CHS.

Author(s): 
Prasad, Ram
Katiyar, Santosh K.

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