Restricting the food intake of mice and rats to well below that of ad libitum-fed animals markedly slows the aging processes. This action is reflected in an increase in longevity, a decrease in the age-associated increase in age-specific mortality rate, the maintenance of the physiological processes in a youthful state even at advanced ages, and the delaying of the onset or slowing of the progression or both of most age-associated diseases. The dietary factor responsible is the reduction in energy (caloric) intake.
Dietary caloric restriction (CR) is the only intervention conclusively and reproducibly shown to slow aging and maintain health and vitality in mammals. Although this paradigm has been known for over 60 years, its precise biological mechanisms and applicability to humans remain unknown. We began addressing the latter question in 1987 with the first controlled study of CR in primates (rhesus and squirrel monkeys, which are evolutionarily much closer to humans than the rodents most frequently employed in CR studies).
Aging is characterized by accumulation of potentially harmful altered proteins that could lead to gradual deterioration of cellular functions and eventually result in increased probability of death. Metabolic turnover of proteins thus plays an essential role in maintaining the life of an organism. In this article we summarize our current knowledge on age-related changes in protein turnover with special reference to degradation. Increase in half-life of proteins with advancing age is well documented.
Insulin-induced PI3K/Akt activation is known to inhibit a family of Forkhead transcription factors (FOXO), which can lead to increased oxidative stress in several model organisms. One of major transcription factors activated by oxidative stress and responsible for the production of many proinflammatory cytokines is NF-kappaB. In the present study, We were carried out to determine the relationship between FOXO1 and NF-kappaB activation using HEK293T cells and aged kidney isolated from ad libitum fed (AL) and 40% calorie restriction (CR) rats.
Numerous longevity genes have been discovered in model organisms and altering their function results in prolonged lifespan. In mammals, some have speculated that any health benefits derived from manipulating these same pathways might be offset by increased cancer risk on account of their propensity to boost cell survival. The Sir2/SIRT1 family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases is proposed to underlie the health benefits of calorie restriction (CR), a diet that broadly suppresses cancer in mammals.
Aging is associated with a loss in muscle known as sarcopenia that is partially attributed to apoptosis. In aging rodents, caloric restriction (CR) increases health and longevity by improving mitochondrial function and the polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) has been reported to have similar benefits.
Lifelong dietary methionine restriction (MR) is associated with increased longevity and decreased incidence of age-related disorders and diseases in rats and mice. A reduction in the levels of oxidative stress may be a contributing mechanistic factor for the beneficial effects of MR. To examine this, we determined the effects of an 80% dietary restriction of Met on different biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant pathways in blood, liver, kidney and brain in the rat. Male F-344 rats were fed control (0.86% methionine) or MR (0.17% methionine) diets for up to six months.
BACKGROUND: Dietary restriction (DR) is a well-established biological method for lifespan extension in various organisms by delaying the progression of age-related disorders. With regard to its molecular mechanisms, a family of NAD-dependent protein deacetylases, such as sirtuins, is considered to mediate DR-induced lifespan extension in some lower organisms. Furthermore, the effects of DR on sirtuins (e.g. SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, and SIRT5) have also been reported in mammals. However, the relationship between sirtuins and DR-associated longevity in mammals is still not clear.
Growth hormone & IGF research: official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society
OBJECTIVE: Since a reduction of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling cascade extends life span in many species and IGF-1 signaling might partly mediate the effects of caloric restriction (CR), an experimental intervention for increasing longevity, the purpose of the present study was to use quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, an unbiased genetic approach, to identify particular regions of the genome influencing plasma IGF-1 levels in an F2 intercross between F344 and LOU/C rats; the latter being an inbred strain of Wistar origin, considered as a model of healthy aging since it resists to age (an