Seventy five medicinal plants of the traditional Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of Sri Lanka have been screened chemically for alkaloids and pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Of these, Crotolaria juncea L. was found to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids with biological effects consistent with pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity. Feeding trials in rats with three plants lacking pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., Hemidesmus indicus (L.) Ait. F. and Terminalia chebula Retz.
The present study has evaluated the healing effects of extract of dried fruit pulp of Terminalia chebula (TCE) on acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats. TCE (600 mg/kg) showed healing effects against AA-induced colonic damage score and weight when administered orally daily for 14 days. TCE was further studied for its effects on various physical (mucus/blood in stool and stool frequency, food and water intake and body weight changes), histology, antibacterial activity and free radicals (NO and LPO), antioxidants (SOD, CAT and GSH) and myeloperoxidase in colonic tissue.
Adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in ageing and longevity; many studies, both human and animal, have focussed on the effects of food limitation. Here we present a new model based on striking differences between two 'normal' inbred strains of albino Wistar rats the Charles River (CR) and Harlan Olac (HO) that have marked differences in age-related accumulation of fat and insulin-stimulated rates of glucose incorporation into lipid in the epididymal fat pads (EFP).
The effects of endosulfan on the weights of the liver, adrenal and ovary, on pentobarbital blood and brain levels and on sleeping time (ST) have been investigated in female rats after daily oral doses of 0, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg for a period of 7 or 15 days. No significant change in body weight was observed. With higher doses (2.5--5.0 mg/kg) the liver weight was significantly increased, but ovary and adrenal weights did not increase. Endosulfan treatment shortened sleeping time, while induction time was significantly increased.
Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
Pretreatment of male rats with phenobarbital markedly depressed the duration of pentobarbital hypnosis and stimulated the hepatic microsomal metabolism of ethylmorphine and aniline. Following selenium treatment there was a prolongation of pentobarbital hypnosis and an inhibition of metabolism of ethylmorphine with no effect on that of aniline. When phenobarbital and selenium were administered simultaneously, the opposing effects on the duration of pentobarbital hypnosis cancelled each other.
Propane-1,2-diol (propylene glycol, PG), considered to be a safe solvent and commonly used as a vehicle in pharmacological and toxicological investigations, showed various neuropsychopharmacological activity in albino mice and rats. In lower concentrations (10-20%), at dose level of 10 ml/kg, PG did not show any significant neuropsychopharmacological activity either by i.p. or p.o. routes. But higher concentrations (50-100%), at same dose level by i.p. route, were found to have moderate to marked effect.
La Semaine Des Hôpitaux: Organe Fondé Par l'Association D'enseignement Médical Des Hôpitaux De Paris
Studies of alizapride (N[(allyl-1 pyrrolidinyl-2) methyl] méthoxy-2 azimido-4,5 benzamide hydrochlorate) in mice and rats demonstrated little toxicity, particularly after parenteral administration. Alizapride's main pharmacodynamic effects are on the central nervous system. It is very effective against emesis induced by apomorphine and dihydrogenated ergot alkaloids in dogs. In this respect it is three times more effective than metoclopramide. In contrast to neuroleptics, alizapride does not modify equilibrium reflexes in mice, nor does it reinforce hypnosis induced by barbiturates.
The uricosuric agent, probenecid, when administered prior to systemic administration of pentobarbital led to a decreased latency, to loss of righting reflex and to a potentiation of the duration of hypnosis. This potentiation was dose-related and doses of probenecid below 50 mg/kg (i.p.) were without effect. Pretreatment of rats with sulfinpyrazone, another uricosuric agent, yielded similar results. Pretreatment of animals with probenecid shortened the latency to onset of hypnosis induced by halothane (i.p.) and increased the duration of loss of righting reflex, 3-fold.