Reaction Time

Publication Title: 
Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the processing time and neuromuscular delay required to extract and process sensory information from the ankle in order to coordinate an upper extremity movement sequence. METHODS: Nineteen able-bodied subjects were tested on their ability to perform a motor task that involved extension of their left index finger when their left ankle was passively plantar flexed at random velocities through a predetermined target angle. RESULTS: We found that the able-bodied subjects were able to adjust their finger responses up to ankle velocities of 70 degrees /s (300 ms).

Author(s): 
Shields, Richard K.
Madhavan, Sangeetha
Cole, Keith R.
Brostad, Jared D.
Demeulenaere, Jeanne L.
Eggers, Christopher D.
Otten, Patrick H.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Neurological Sciences

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease which is caused by degeneration of motor neurons in the central nervous system. The incidence of ALS is higher in men than women, but the female advantage disappears with increased age. Here, we report evidence that the female advantage is due to the protective role of estrogen. In an ALS mouse model carrying the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (hSOD1) G93A transgene, ovariectomy did not alter the onset age of the disease while reducing the female lifespan by 7 days and making it comparable to that of the male transgenic mice.

Author(s): 
Choi, Chan-Il
Lee, Young-Don
Gwag, Byoung Joo
Cho, Sung Ig
Kim, Sung-Soo
Suh-Kim, Haeyoung
Publication Title: 
Developmental Science

Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such learning across the lifespan, between 4 and 85 years of age with an implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, and we found that the difference in implicitly learning high- vs.

Author(s): 
Janacsek, Karolina
Fiser, JÛzsef
Nemeth, Dezso
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

Brief bouts of sublethal ischemia have been shown to protect exposed tissue (ischemic conditioning) and tissues at remote sites (remote ischemic conditioning) against subsequent ischemic challenges. Given that the mechanisms of this protective phenomenon are multifactorial and epigenetic, we postulated that remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC) might enhance mechanisms responsible for neural plasticity, and thereby facilitate learning.

Author(s): 
Cherry-Allen, Kendra M.
Gidday, Jeff M.
Lee, Jin-Moo
Hershey, Tamara
Lang, Catherine E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

The author conducted 8 studies to elucidate the content and structure of lay conceptions of commitment. Studies 1 to 5 revealed that laypeople regard commitment to close relationships (e.g., friends, family, spouse) as central to the concept, whereas they consider nonclose (e.g., commitment to a neighbor) and noninterpersonal varieties (e.g., one's occupation) peripheral. This prototype structure influenced information processing in predictable ways. Studies 6 to 8 focused on the vertical structure of commitment categories.

Author(s): 
Fehr, B.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Psycholinguistic Research

In Mandarin Chinese, word meaning is partially determined by lexical tone (Wang, 1973). Previous studies suggest that lexical tone is processed as linguistic information and not as pure tonal information (Gandour, 1998; Van Lanker & Fromkin, 1973). The current study explored the online processing of lexical tones.

Author(s): 
Brown-Schmidt, Sarah
Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta
Publication Title: 
Social Neuroscience

Romantic love has been the source for some of the greatest achievements of mankind throughout the ages. The recent localization of romantic love within subcortico-cortical reward, motivation and emotion systems in the human brain has suggested that love is a goal-directed drive with predictable facilitation effects on cognitive behavior, rather than a pure emotion.

Author(s): 
Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco
Grafton, Scott T.
Ortigue, Stephanie
Publication Title: 
Brain Topography

Feeling is stable and implicit and can be explicated in concrete situations in the form of emotion. To map the time course of feeling processing, the present study explored electrophysiological responses relevant to inner feeling by creating situations to evoke the explicit response of feeling. Fourteen mothers were asked to listen to TS and NS.

Author(s): 
Lu, Jiamei
Li, Da
Xu, Jingwei
Publication Title: 
Human Brain Mapping

In previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies concerning romantic love, several brain regions including the caudate and putamen have consistently been found to be more responsive to beloved-related than control stimuli. In those studies, infatuated individuals were typically instructed to passively view the stimuli or to think of the viewed person. In the current study, we examined how the instruction to attend to, or ignore the beloved modulates the response of these brain areas.

Author(s): 
Langeslag, Sandra J. E.
van der Veen, Frederik M.
Rˆder, Christian H.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Psychology

A primed lexical decision task (LDT) was used to determine whether emotion (e.g., love, fear) and emotion-laden (e.g., puppy, hospital) word processing differs, both explicitly and implicitly. Previous experiments have investigated how emotion word processing differs from both abstract and concrete word processing (Altarriba & Bauer, 2004; Altarriba, Bauer, & Benvenuto, 1999).

Author(s): 
Kazanas, Stephanie A.
Altarriba, Jeanette

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