Reagent Kits, Diagnostic

Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

We evaluated the ICT Malaria P.f./P.v. immunochromatographic test for the detection of the panmalarial antigen (PMA) using a rodent malaria model. Mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei by mosquito bite, and blood was examined by microscopy and the ICT test. Treatment with artemether was started when the parasite density exceeded 70,000/microL. The ICT PMA band appeared when the parasite density was more than 2,000/microL, but it continued to be positive after the parasitemia became negative in response to the drug treatment.

Author(s): 
Arai, Meiji
Ishii, Akira
Matsuoka, Hiroyuki
Publication Title: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

The extension of drug resistance among malaria-causing Plasmodium falciparum parasites in Africa necessitates implementation of new combined therapeutic strategies. Drug susceptibility phenotyping requires precise measurements. Until recently, schizont maturation and isotopic in vitro assays were the only methods available, but their use was limited by technical constraints. This explains the revived interest in the development of replacement methods, such as the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) immunodetection assay.

Author(s): 
Kaddouri, Halima
Nakache, Serge
Houzé, Sandrine
Mentré, France
Le Bras, Jacques
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: An assessment of the accuracy of Paracheck Pf, a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) detecting histidine rich protein 2 was undertaken amongst children aged 6-59 months in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: This RDT assessment occurred in conjunction with an ACT efficacy trial. Febrile children were simultaneously screened with both RDT and high quality microscopy and those meeting inclusion criteria were followed for 35 days. RESULTS: 358 febrile children were screened with 180 children recruited for five weeks follow-up.

Author(s): 
Swarthout, Todd D.
Counihan, Helen
Senga, Raphael Kabangwa K.
van den Broek, Ingrid
Publication Title: 
JAMA

CONTEXT: Improving the accuracy of malaria diagnosis with rapid antigen-detection diagnostic tests (RDTs) has been proposed as an approach for reducing overtreatment of malaria in the current era of widespread implementation of artemisinin-based combination therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between use of microscopy and RDT and the prescription of antimalarials.

Author(s): 
Hamer, Davidson H.
Ndhlovu, Micky
Zurovac, Dejan
Fox, Matthew
Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo
Chanda, Pascalina
Sipilinyambe, Naawa
Simon, Jonathon L.
Snow, Robert W.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Shortly after Kenya introduced artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, we conducted a pre-post cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of providing malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) on recommended treatment (patients with malaria prescribed AL) and overtreatment (patients without malaria prescribed AL) in outpatients >/= 5 years old. Sixty health facilities were randomized to receive either RDTs plus training, guidelines, and supervision (TGS) or TGS alone.

Author(s): 
Skarbinski, Jacek
Ouma, Peter O.
Causer, Louise M.
Kariuki, Simon K.
Barnwell, John W.
Alaii, Jane A.
de Oliveira, Alexandre Macedo
Zurovac, Dejan
Larson, Bruce A.
Snow, Robert W.
Rowe, Alexander K.
Laserson, Kayla F.
Akhwale, Willis S.
Slutsker, Laurence
Hamel, Mary J.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and treatment of malaria is often based on syndromic presentation (presumptive treatment) and microscopic examination of blood films. Treatment based on syndromic approach has been found to be costly, and contributes to the development of drug resistance, while microscopic diagnosis of malaria is time-consuming and labour-intensive. Also, there is lack of trained microscopists and reliable equipment especially in rural areas of Nigeria.

Author(s): 
Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. C.
Obikeze, Eric N.
Onwujekwe, Obinna E.
Onoka, Chima A.
Griffiths, Ulla K.
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: While the federal state of Amazonas bears the highest risk for malaria in Venezuela (2007: 68.4 cases/1000 inhabitants), little comprehensive information about the malaria situation is available from this area. The purpose of this rapid malaria appraisal (RMA) was to provide baseline data about malaria and malaria control in Amazonas. METHODS: The RMA methodology corresponds to a rapid health impact assessment (HIA) as described in the 1999 Gothenburg consensus.

Author(s): 
Metzger, Wolfram G.
Giron, Anibal M.
Vivas-Martínez, Sarai
González, Julio
Charrasco, Antonio J.
Mordmüller, Benjamin G.
Magris, Magda
Publication Title: 
Malaria Journal

BACKGROUND: In 2006, the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) has recommended artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria and, in 2007, mandated testing for all suspected cases of malaria with a Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2-based rapid diagnostic test for malaria (RDT(Paracheck).

Author(s): 
Ly, Alioune Badara
Tall, Adama
Perry, Robert
Baril, Laurence
Badiane, Abdoulaye
Faye, Joseph
Rogier, Christophe
Touré, Aissatou
Sokhna, Cheikh
Trape, Jean-François
Michel, Rémy
Publication Title: 
BMC public health

BACKGROUND: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) have been widely advocated by government and the international community as cost-effective tools for diagnosis and treatment of malaria. ACTs are now the first line treatment drug for malaria in Nigeria and RDTs have been introduced by the government to bridge the existing gaps in proper diagnosis. However, it is not known how readily available these RDTs and ACTs are in public and private health facilities and whether health workers are actually using them.

Author(s): 
Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. C.
Chiegboka, Lausdeus O.
Enwereuzo, Chibuike
Nwosu, Usonwanne
Okorafor, David
Onwujekwe, Obinna E.
Uguru, Nkoli P.
Sibeudu, Florence T.
Ezeoke, Ogochukwu P.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

INTRODUCTION: Developments in rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have opened new possibilities for improved remote malaria diagnosis that is independent of microscopic diagnosis. Studies in some settings have tried to assess the influence of RDTs on the prescribing behaviour of health workers, but such information is generally lacking in Nigeria and many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This study analysed health workers' perceptions of RDTs and their potential influence on their prescribing and treatment practices after their introduction.

Author(s): 
Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. C.
Onwujekwe, Emmanuel
Ezuma, Nkoli N.
Ezeoke, Ogochukwu P.
Ajuba, Miriam O.
Sibeudu, Florence T.

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