Artemisinin (ART) dimers show potent anti-proliferative activities against breast cancer cells. To facilitate their clinical development, novel pH-responsive artemisinin dimers were synthesized for liposomal nanoparticle formulations. A new ART dimer was designed to become increasingly water-soluble as pH declines. The new artemisinin dimer piperazine derivatives (ADPs) remained tightly associated with liposomal nanoparticles (NPs) at neutral pH but were efficiently released at acidic pH's that are known to exist within solid tumors and organelles such as endosomes and lysosomes.
Bamboo grass leaves of different Sasa species have been widely used in food and medicine in Eastern Asia for hundreds of years. Of special interest are Kumazasa (Sasa senanensis rehder) leaves used to prepare an alkaline extract known as Sasa Health. This extract was reported to inhibit both the development and growth of mammary tumors in a mammary tumor strain of virgin SHN mice (1). We found that Sasa Health exerts a significant protective effect on spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis in another mouse model of human breast cancer, the transgenic FVB-Her2/NeuN mouse model.
Although tamoxifen (TAM) is used for the front-line treatment and prevention of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast tumors, nearly 40% of estrogen-dependent breast tumors do not respond to TAM treatment. Moreover, the positive response is usually of short duration, and most tumors eventually develop TAM-resistance. Overexpression of HER2 gene is associated with TAM-resistance of breast tumor, and suppression of HER2 expression enhances the TAM activity. Soy isoflavone genistein has been shown to have anti-cancer activities and suppress expression of HER2 and ERalpha.
Multiple TLR agonists have been shown to have antitumor effects in animal models. However, the therapeutic efficacy of TLR agonist monotherapy in cancer treatment has been limited, and the mechanisms of failure remain unknown. We demonstrate that topical treatment with a TLR-7 agonist, imiquimod, can elicit significant regression of spontaneous breast cancers in neu transgenic mice, a model of human HER-2/neu(+) breast cancer. However, tumor growth progressed once imiquimod therapy was ended.
Many estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers respond well initially to endocrine therapies, but often develop resistance during treatment with selective ER modulators (SERMs) such as tamoxifen. We have reported that the 14-3-3 family member and conserved protein, 14-3-3ζ, is upregulated by tamoxifen and that high expression correlated with an early time to disease recurrence. However, the mechanism by which tamoxifen upregulates 14-3-3ζ and may promote the development of endocrine resistance is not known.
Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
PURPOSE: The therapeutic effect of trastuzumab monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy has been shown to be partially dependent on functional natural killer (NK) cells. Novel agents that enhance NK cell function could potentially improve the antitumor effect of trastuzumab. We recently identified polysaccharide krestin (PSK), a natural product extracted from medicinal mushroom Trametes versicolor, as a potent toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of PSK on human NK cells and the potential of using PSK to enhance HER2-targeted mAb therapy.
SCOPE: Epidemiologic evidence suggests diets rich in cruciferous vegetables, particularly broccoli, are associated with lower bladder cancer risk. Our objectives are to investigate these observations and determine the role of isothiocyanates in primary or secondary bladder cancer prevention. METHODS AND RESULTS: We initially investigate the mechanisms whereby broccoli and broccoli sprout extracts and pure isothiocyanates inhibit normal, noninvasive (RT4), and invasive (J82, UMUC3) human urothelial cell viability.
Di 1 jun yi da xue xue bao = Academic journal of the first medical college of PLA
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of classical traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions that function to promote blood circulation and removing blood stasis on the metastatic behavior of malignant tumors, and explore the possible mechanisms of such effects.
ErbB-2 gene encodes tyrosine kinase receptor p185(neu). Overexpression of erbB-2 plays a key role in tumorigenesis or progression such as breast cancer and ovarian cancer. Our previous study showed that ON-III (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone) extracted from Traditional Chinese Medicine Cleistocaly xoperculatus dry flower could inhibit KDR tyrosine kinase phosphorylation and tumor growth in vivo. In this study, we reported that ON-III repressed tyrosine phosphorylation of erbB-2 without reduced erbB-2 receptor expression in MDA-MB-453 cells.
BACKGROUND: In breast cancer, ER/PgR, HER2, and Ki-67 are important biological markers for predicting prognosis and making effective treatment decisions. In addition, changes in markers due to relapse are also clinically experienced; however, the frequency and clinical significance are still not fully understood. Thus, changes in markers and their correlations with prognosis were investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Out of the patients with relapse from 1997 to March 2011, there were 97 consecutive patients from whom the lesion was resected and evaluated by immunostaining.