Mammals and birds have evolved three primary, discrete, interrelated emotion-motivation systems in the brain for mating, reproduction, and parenting: lust, attraction, and male-female attachment. Each emotion-motivation system is associated with a specific constellation of neural correlates and a distinct behavioral repertoire.
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The convolvulacea Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f.) is well known as an important medical plant in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine and it is used in numerous diseases (e.g. nervousness, bronchitis, tuberculosis, arthritis, and diabetes). Additionally, in the Indian state of Assam and in other regions Argyreia nervosa is part of the traditional tribal medicine (e.g. the Santali people, the Lodhas, and others). In the western hemisphere, Argyreia nervosa has been brought in attention as so called "legal high".
Joint manipulation has long been used for pain relief. However, the underlying mechanisms for manipulation-related pain relief remain largely unexplored. The purpose of the current study was to determine which spinal neurotransmitter receptors mediate manipulation-induced antihyperalgesia. Rats were injected with capsaicin (50 microl, 0.2%) into one ankle joint and mechanical withdrawal threshold measured before and after injection. The mechanical withdrawal threshold decreases 2 h after capsaicin injection.
The Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by debilitating fatigue, often accompanied by widespread muscle pain that meets criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Symptoms become markedly worse after exercise. Previous studies implicated dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and immune system (IS) in CFS and FMS.
Methoxamine, isoprenaline, salbutamol and dobutamine were used to inhibit the spontaneous contraction of various rabbit small and large intestinal sections. From the concentration of the drugs that produced a similar magnitude of inhibition of the spontaneous contraction, the following deductions were made: The small intestine compared to the large intestine responded more to methoxamine, indicating a predominant presence of alpha receptors in the small intestine. The reverse is true for isoprenaline, indicating a predominant presence of beta receptors in the large intestine.
PURPOSE: We investigated what kinds of neurotransmitters are related with electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia in an arthritic pain model of rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred rats were assigned to six groups: control, EA, opioid, adrenergic, serotonin and dopamine group. A standardized model of inflammatory arthritis was produced by injecting 2% carrageenan into the knee joint cavity. EA was applied to an acupoint for 30 min in all groups except fo the control group.