Many pharmaceutical drugs arc isolated from plants used in traditional medicines, and new plant-derived pharmaceutical drugs continue to be identified. Relevant to this review, different plant-derived agonists for gammadelta T cells are described that impart effector functions upon distinct subsets of these cells. Recently, plant tannins have been defined as one class of gammadelta T cell agonist and appear to preferentially activate the mucosal population. Mucosal gammadelta T cells function to modulate tissue immune responses and induce epithelium repair.
γδ T cells have been postulated to act as a first line of defense against infectious agents, particularly intracellular pathogens, representing an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. Human γδ T cells expand in the blood of brucellosis patients and are active against Brucella in vitro. However, the role of γδ T cells in vivo during experimental brucellosis has not been studied. Here we report TCRδ(-/-) mice are more susceptible to B. abortus infection than C57BL/6 mice at one week post-infection as measured by splenic colonization and splenomegaly.
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
We characterized immune modulating functions of porcine γδ T cell subsets in rotavirus infection using a gnotobiotic pig model of human rotavirus infection and sort-purified lymphocyte autologous co-cultures. We demonstrated that CD2+CD8- and CD2-CD8- γδ T cells have mainly pro-inflammatory function as evident by directly secreting IFN-γ or promoting CD4+ αβ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, whereas CD2+CD8+ γδ T cells mainly exert regulatory T cell function by expressing FoxP3, secreting IL-10 and TGF-β or increasing IL-10 and TGF-β production by CD4+ αβ T cells.
Solute carrier 11A1 (SLC11A1) is a divalent ion transporter formerly known as the natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP1) and the Bcg/Lsh/Ity locus. SLC11A1 was thought to be exclusively expressed in monocyte/macrophages and to have roles in phagosome maturation and cell activation. We characterized the expression of SLC11A1 in the majority of human and bovine γδ T cells and NK cells and in human CD3(+)CD45RO(+) T cells.
Polysaccharide K (PSK) is a widely used mushroom extract that has shown anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of actions of PSK. We recently reported that PSK can activate toll-like receptor 2 and enhances the function of NK cells. The current study was undertaken to study the effect of PSK on gamma delta (γδ) T cells, another important arm of the innate immunity.
To explore the hypothesis that gammadelta T cells may regulate activated alphabeta T cells, we studied gammadelta T cell responses to alphabeta T cell clones in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients who received attenuated autologous autoreactive T cells. We recently conducted a pilot study of T cell vaccination with myelin basic protein reactive T cells in MS. Since T cell vaccination upregulates the anti-vaccine T cell responses, we evaluated gammadelta T cell reactivity towards the vaccine in the vaccinated patients.