Vasculature is essential for the sustained growth of solid tumors and metastases. Tumor cells surviving vascular-disruptive therapeutic intervention (especially those present at the tumor rim) can contribute to tumor regrowth. The aim was to strengthen, by carrier-mediated delivery of a chemotherapeutic, the curative effects of a bifunctional anti-vascular oligopeptide capable of inducing vascular shutdown and tumor shrinkage. For the in vitro experiments and animal therapy, ACDCRGDCFC-GG-(D)(KLAKLAK)(2) peptide (900 microM in D-PBSA, i.e.
The insulin-sensitizing drug phenformin, in addition to its clinical utility in type II diabetes, has been reported to lower blood lipids, reduce body fat, enhance cellular immunity, and--in rodents--to increase mean lifespan and retard the development of growth of cancer. Initial studies with the insulin-sensitizing nutrient chromium picolinate indicate that it aids glucose tolerance in type II diabetes, lowers elevated LDL cholesterol, reduces body fat while increasing lean mass, and--in rats--increases median lifespan.
The ability of adenosine to modify the CNS effects of acute and chronic ethanol was studied by using theophylline, an adenosine antagonist, and dipyridamole, a blocker of adenosine reuptake. We also studied the binding characteristics of adenosine using crude membranes of whole brain. Theophylline pretreatment prior to acute ethanol administration markedly reduced the duration of ethanol-induced sleep and similarly decreased the intensity and duration of motor incoordination.
Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology
The general pharmacological profile and effects of E-4716 on the CNS have been investigated in comparison with other histamine receptor blockers. In in vitro studies with isolated organs and in binding studies on numerous receptors, E-4716 had no activity even at high concentrations, except for the selective blockade of H1 receptors. No activity was observed in pharmacological trials in vivo, such as the Irwin test or analgesia induced by phenylbenzoquinone or electroshock, suggesting a depressant activity on the CNS.
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
The interaction between Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein II (PvDBPII) and human erythrocyte Duffy antigen is necessary for blood stage infections. However, PvDBPII is highly polymorphic. We recently observed that certain recombinant DBPII variants bind better to erythrocytes in vitro. To examine the hypothesis that haplotypes with enhanced binding have increased parasitemia levels, we followed 206 Papua New Guinean children biweekly for six months with a total of 713 P. vivax samples genotyped.
Traditional medicinal plants in various countries, particularly in India have been used for centuries for various ailments; however, there has been little scientific effort to validate these anecdotal uses mentioned in the literature.
OBJECTIVE: Immune and inflammatory signaling pathways, initiated by the innate response, are involved in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated MyD88-dependent NFkappaB pathways play a role in the induction of innate immunity. We have reported that glucan phosphate (GP) improved survival in experimental sepsis, which correlated with decreased tissue NFkappaB activation. In the present study, we report that GP rapidly induced cardioprotection against I/R injury in vivo.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells specialized to initiate and maintain immunity and tolerance. DCs initiate immune responses in a manner that depends on signals they receive from pathogens, surrounding cells and their products. Most tumors are infiltrated by DCs. Thus, interactions between DCs and dying tumor cells may determine the balance between immunity and tolerance to tumor cells. In addition, DCs also display non-immunologic effects on tumors and the tumor microenvironment.
The Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by debilitating fatigue, often accompanied by widespread muscle pain that meets criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Symptoms become markedly worse after exercise. Previous studies implicated dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and immune system (IS) in CFS and FMS.