Wilson disease is a hereditary disorder caused by mutations of the ATP7B gene, which leads to intoxication with copper as a result of an unbalance of copper homeostasis. The clinical manifestations resulting from this intoxication are related to the affectation of liver and the encephalon in most cases. Several animal models are currently available for the study of the malady. However, in such models no neurological symptoms are observed, which limits their use for the study of pathogenic effects of this disease on the central nervous system.
In a long-term longitudinal study of aging in rhesus monkeys, a primary objective has been to determine the effects of aging and caloric restriction (CR) on behavioral and neural parameters. Through the use of automated devices, locomotor activity can be monitored in the home cages of the monkeys. Studies completed thus far indicate a clear age-related decline in activity consistent with such observations in many other species, including humans. However, no consistent effects of CR on activity have been observed.
Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
A number of recent clinical and molecular observations in major psychosis indicate that epigenetic factors may be operational in the origin of major mental illness. This article further develops the idea that epigenetic factors may play an etiopathogenic role in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. The putative role of epigenetic factors is shown by the epigenetic interpretation of genetic association studies of the genes for serotonin 2A (HTR2A) and the dopamine D3 (DRD3) receptors in schizophrenia.
OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) has been linked to an impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission, still the origin of this disturbance remains unknown. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to evaluate whether the expression of dopaminergic genes is altered in the blood of patients suffering from eating disorders and if these alterations can be explained by changes in the promoter specific DNA methylation of the genes.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
BACKGROUND: The capacity to control or regulate one's emotions, cognitions and behavior is central to competent functioning, with limitations in these abilities associated with developmental problems. Parenting appears to influence such self-regulation. Here the differential-susceptibility hypothesis is tested that the more putative 'plasticity alleles' adolescents carry, the more positively and negatively influenced they will be by, respectively, supportive and unsupportive parenting.
BACKGROUND: Prenatal cannabis exposure has been linked to addiction vulnerability, but the neurobiology underlying this risk is unknown. METHODS: Striatal dopamine and opioid-related genes were studied in human fetal subjects exposed to cannabis (as well as cigarettes and alcohol). Cannabis-related gene disturbances observed in the human fetus were subsequently characterized with an animal model of prenatal ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (.15 mg/kg) exposure.
OBJECTIVE: Previous findings indicate that women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), when compared to women with no eating disorder (NED), tend to display elevated methylation in the promoter region of the DRD2 gene. The preceding would be compatible with evidence of generally reduced dopamine activity in people with BN. However, altered DNA methylation has also been associated with adverse environmental exposures (such as to childhood abuse) and with psychiatric disturbances (such as Borderline Personality Disorder: BPD).
OBJECTIVES: It has been hypothesized that cerebral neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin could play a role in human romantic bonding. However, no data on the genetic basis of human romantic love are currently available. To address this issue, we looked for associations between markers in neurotransmitter genes (the serotonin transporter gene, 5-HTT; the serotonin receptor 2A, 5HT2A; the dopamine D2 receptor gene, DRD2; and the dopamine D4 receptor gene, DRD4) and the six styles of love as conceptualized by Lee (Eros, Ludus, Storge, Pragma, Mania and Agape).
Humans show consistent differences in the extent to which their behavior reflects a bias toward appetitive approach-related behavior or avoidance of aversive stimuli [Elliot, A. J. Approach and avoidance motivation. In A. J. Elliot (Ed.), Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation (pp. 3-14). New York: Psychology Press, 2008].
l-Tetrahydroberberine-d-camphor sulfonate (THB-CS) possessed an inhibitory effect on apomorphine-induced chewing movement in a similar manner to that of tetrahydroberberine (THB). Both compounds enhanced barbiturate-induced hypnosis. They did not have an anticonvulsant effect on convulsive seizures induced by bicuculline, pentetrazole or strychnine. THB and THB-CS blocked dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity.