Receptors, Dopamine D4

Publication Title: 
Revista De Investigacion Clinica; Organo Del Hospital De Enfermedades De La Nutricion

The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) is the most important gene in psychiatric genetics since its involvement in the physiology of behavior, pharmacology response and psychopathology. DRD4's sequence gene present some polymorphism such as in the exon 3 constituted from 2 to 10 copies of repetitive sequences of 48 base pair (bp), from class variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). An additional genetic variant in the exon 1 presents polymorphisms to 12 bp VNTR, and the variation -521 C by T of the promoter region.

Author(s): 
Aguirre-Samudio, Ana Julia
Nicolini, Humberto
Publication Title: 
Current Psychiatry Reports

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common childhood-onset psychiatric disorders. Although family, twin, and adoption studies demonstrate that ADHD is a highly heritable condition, studies also suggest that genetic architecture is complex, prompting the use of more advanced methodologies such as genome-wide linkage and association studies. Although such studies are theoretically compelling, replication of these results has been inconsistent.

Author(s): 
Smith, Alicia K.
Mick, Eric
Faraone, Stephen V.
Publication Title: 
Epigenetics

DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism involved in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Alterations in DNA methylation are established contributors to inter-individual phenotypic variation and have been associated with disease susceptibility. The degree to which changes in loci-specific DNA methylation are under the influence of heritable and environmental factors is largely unknown.

Author(s): 
Wong, Chloe Chung Yi
Caspi, Avshalom
Williams, Benjamin
Craig, Ian W.
Houts, Renate
Ambler, Antony
Moffitt, Terrie E.
Mill, Jonathan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines

BACKGROUND: The capacity to control or regulate one's emotions, cognitions and behavior is central to competent functioning, with limitations in these abilities associated with developmental problems. Parenting appears to influence such self-regulation. Here the differential-susceptibility hypothesis is tested that the more putative 'plasticity alleles' adolescents carry, the more positively and negatively influenced they will be by, respectively, supportive and unsupportive parenting.

Author(s): 
Belsky, Jay
Beaver, Kevin M.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Although there is some evidence supporting the existence of an association between prenatal maternal or postnatal child's urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances, the interaction between urine phthalate metabolite levels and genetic variation for neuropsychological deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been examined.

Author(s): 
Park, Subin
Kim, Bung-Nyun
Cho, Soo-Churl
Kim, Yeni
Kim, Jae-Won
Lee, Ju-Young
Hong, Soon-Beom
Shin, Min-Sup
Yoo, Hee Jeong
Im, Hosub
Cheong, Jae Hoon
Han, Doug Hyun
Publication Title: 
Neuro Endocrinology Letters

OBJECTIVES: It has been hypothesized that cerebral neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin could play a role in human romantic bonding. However, no data on the genetic basis of human romantic love are currently available. To address this issue, we looked for associations between markers in neurotransmitter genes (the serotonin transporter gene, 5-HTT; the serotonin receptor 2A, 5HT2A; the dopamine D2 receptor gene, DRD2; and the dopamine D4 receptor gene, DRD4) and the six styles of love as conceptualized by Lee (Eros, Ludus, Storge, Pragma, Mania and Agape).

Author(s): 
Emanuele, Enzo
Brondino, Natascia
Pesenti, Sara
Re, Simona
Geroldi, Diego
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Molecular genetic studies of personality began with two high impact papers in 1996 that showed provisional associations between the dopamine DRD4 exon III repeat region and Novelty Seeking/Extraversion. These first two reports were shortly followed by an investigation linking Neuroticism/Harm Avoidance with the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) promoter region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR).

Author(s): 
Ebstein, R. P.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface

The evolutionary status of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is central to assessments of whether modern society has created it, either physically or socially; and is potentially useful in understanding its neurobiological basis and treatment. The high prevalence of ADHD (5-10%) and its association with the seven-repeat allele of DRD4, which is positively selected in evolution, raise the possibility that ADHD increases the reproductive fitness of the individual, and/or the group.

Author(s): 
Williams, Jonathan
Taylor, Eric
Publication Title: 
PloS One

In experimental economics, the preference for reciprocal fairness has been observed in the controlled and incentivized laboratory setting of the ultimatum game, in which two individuals decide on how to divide a sum of money, with one proposing the share while the second deciding whether to accept. Should the proposal be accepted, the amount is divided accordingly. Otherwise, both would receive no money. A recent twin study has shown that fairness preference inferred from responder behavior is heritable, yet its neurogenetic basis remains unknown.

Author(s): 
Zhong, Songfa
Israel, Salomon
Shalev, Idan
Xue, Hong
Ebstein, Richard P.
Chew, Soo Hong
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Attention binds psychology to the techniques of neuroscience and exemplifies the links between brain and behavior. Associated with attentional networks, at least 3 brain modules govern control processes by drawing on disparate functional neuroanatomy, neuromodulators, and psychological substrates. Guided by data-driven brain theories, researchers have related specific genetic polymorphisms to well-defined phenotypes, including those associated with different attentional efficiencies and hypnosis.

Author(s): 
Raz, Amir
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