BACKGROUND: Midazolam, if used with ketamine for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, may attenuate hyperdynamic circulatory effects and prevent undesirable emergenic reactions. The nature of the interaction between midazolam and ketamine used for anesthesia induction was studied in female patients. METHODS: Quantal dose-response curves were determined in 170 female patients for the drugs, individually and in combination. Two endpoints were assessed, loss of response to verbal command (hypnosis) and loss of response to a 5-s transcutaneous tetanus (anesthesia).
Attempts have been made to attribute the particular features of general anaesthesia such as hypnosis, analgesia, amnesia and autonomic stability to certain brain regions. In the present study, we examined the effects of the commonplace volatile anaesthetic isoflurane on synaptic transmission in an in vitro slice preparation of the murine amygdala.
We studied the effects of pentobarbital and antagonists of glutamate, gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA), and glycine receptors on extracellular activity in ventrobasal thalamic slices. Pentobarbital at sedative-hypnotic concentration (20 microM) reversibly induced 1-15 Hz oscillations. Sustained oscillations required electrical stimulation of internal capsule, but not elevated temperature or low [Mg2+]. Anesthetic concentration (200 microM) of pentobarbital evoked only transient oscillations. Kynurenate-sensitive glutamate receptors were essential for oscillations.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent in-vitro and in-vivo research on molecular mechanisms of general anesthetics' actions. RECENT FINDINGS: Classes of general anesthetics with distinct clinical profiles appear to induce amnesia, hypnosis, and immobility via different molecular targets. Propofol, etomidate, and barbiturates produce profound amnesia and hypnosis, but weak immobility, by enhancing the activity of specific gamma-aminobutyric acid typeA receptors.
This study evaluated possible CNS effects of a hexane extract of leaves from Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.) Baill. (Annonaceae). This plant extract induced anxiolytic-like actions similar to those induced by diazepam in the avoidance exploratory behavior paradigm. Its significant activity was shown at doses from 1.62 to 6.25 mg/kg. It also enhanced pentobarbital-induced hypnosis time, and at high doses produced motor coordination impairment. The benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor binding, evaluated by in vitro autoradiography following a single administration of R.
General anesthetic-induced unresponsiveness covers a spectrum of different behavioral components, namely, (1) amnesia, (2) sedation/hypnosis, (3) analgesia, and (4) immobility. At the molecular and cellular level, anesthetic drugs have been shown to have effects on a wide rage of putative targets, such as ligand-gated ion channels (GABA, glycine, NMDA receptors), other ion channels (K+, Na+, Ca2+), and other intracellular functions. This mini-review summarizes recent topics in this research field focusing on NMDA and GABA receptors.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira De Pesquisas Médicas E Biológicas / Sociedade Brasileira De Biofísica ... [et Al.]
The N-acylhydrazone (NAH) analogues N-methyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-785) and N-benzyl 2-thienylidene 3,4-benzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-786) were prepared from 2-thienylidene 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoylhydrazine (LASSBio-294). The ability of LASSBio-785 and LASSBio-786 to decrease central nervous system activity was investigated in male Swiss mice. LASSBio-785 or LASSBio-786 (30?mg/kg, ip) reduced locomotor activity from 209 ± 26 (control) to 140 ± 18 (P < 0.05) or 146 ± 15 crossings/min (P < 0.05), respectively.
Joint manipulation has long been used for pain relief. However, the underlying mechanisms for manipulation-related pain relief remain largely unexplored. The purpose of the current study was to determine which spinal neurotransmitter receptors mediate manipulation-induced antihyperalgesia. Rats were injected with capsaicin (50 microl, 0.2%) into one ankle joint and mechanical withdrawal threshold measured before and after injection. The mechanical withdrawal threshold decreases 2 h after capsaicin injection.
The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is an 18-kDa high affinity drug- and cholesterol-binding protein that is involved in various cell functions, including cell proliferation and apoptosis. PBR was shown to be overexpressed in certain types of malignant human tumors and cancer cell lines, correlating with enhanced tumorigenicity and cell proliferation rates. The present study was conducted in order to further define the role of PBR in cancer and to extend our recent findings regarding the possible anticancer effects of the standardized Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761.
Electroacupuncture (EA) delivered to the acupoint (AP) called Zusanli (ST36) was administered on the bilateral hindlimb. This experiment resulted in strong expression of c-Fos immunoreactivity in the ventrolateral to lateral subdivision throughout the periaqueductal gray (PAG) compared to the non-AP and sham cases. On the other hand, it was of particular interest in the experiment of the AP that strong expression of gamma aminobutylic acid (GABA) frequently showed similar pattern of distribution to that of c-Fos in the PAG.