Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate

Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for both efficacy and adverse events of analgesic therapy for PHN.

Author(s): 
Hempenstall, Kathleen
Nurmikko, Turo J.
Johnson, Robert W.
A'Hern, Roger P.
Rice, Andrew S. C.
Publication Title: 
PLoS medicine

BACKGROUND: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a complication of acute herpes zoster, which is emerging as a preferred clinical trial model for chronic neuropathic pain. Although there are published meta-analyses of analgesic therapy in PHN, and neuropathic pain in general, the evidence base has been substantially enhanced by the recent publication of several major trials. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis for both efficacy and adverse events of analgesic therapy for PHN.

Author(s): 
Hempenstall, Kathleen
Nurmikko, Turo J.
Johnson, Robert W.
A'Hern, Roger P.
Rice, Andrew S. C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Anatomy

Research studies clearly indicate that age-related changes in cellular and tissue function are linked to decreases in the anabolic hormones, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Although there has been extensive research on the effects of these hormones on bone and muscle mass, their effect on cerebrovascular and brain ageing has received little attention.

Author(s): 
Sonntag, W. E.
Lynch, C.
Thornton, P.
Khan, A.
Bennett, S.
Ingram, R.
Publication Title: 
Critical Reviews in Neurobiology

Several lines of evidence support the role of an epigenetic-induced GABAergic cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia psychopathology, which is probably dependent on an increase in the expression of DNA-methyltransferase-1 occurring selectively in GABAergic neurons. The key enzyme regulating GABA synthesis, termed glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and the important neurodevelopmental protein called reelin are coexpressed in GABAergic neurons. Upon release, GABA and reelin bind to postsynaptic receptors located in dendrites, somata, or the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons.

Author(s): 
Costa, E.
Davis, J. M.
Dong, E.
Grayson, D. R.
Guidotti, A.
Tremolizzo, L.
Veldic, M.
Publication Title: 
Current Drug Abuse Reviews

Addiction research focusing on homocysteine metabolism and its association with aspects of alcohol dependence has revealed important findings. Recent literature on this topic has been taken into account for the review provided. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme in the homocysteine metabolism. Plasma homocysteine levels are influenced by the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) MTHFR C677T. Besides genetic factors, environmental factors have an impact on homocysteine plasma levels too.

Author(s): 
Lutz, Ulrich C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria: 1996)

NMDA receptors and especially the NR2B receptor subtype play a crucial role during chronic ethanol consumption and alcohol withdrawal. Therefore, the NR2B receptor subtype expression in peripheral blood cells of 32 male patients suffering from alcohol dependency were assessed through quantitative RT-PCR and to explore regulating epigenetic mechanisms, a methylation analysis was conducted using bisulfite sequencing of a fragment of the NR2B promoter region.

Author(s): 
Biermann, Teresa
Reulbach, Udo
Lenz, Bernd
Frieling, Helge
Muschler, Marc
Hillemacher, Thomas
Kornhuber, Johannes
Bleich, Stefan
Publication Title: 
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry

In 1995, the macrophage-T lymphocyte theory of schizophrenia (Smith and Maes, 1995) considered that activated immuno-inflammatory pathways may account for the higher neurodevelopmental pathology linked with gestational infections through the detrimental effects of activated microglia, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), cytokine-induced activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway and consequent modulation of the N-methyl d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) and glutamate production.

Author(s): 
Anderson, George
Maes, Michael
Publication Title: 
Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Despite intensive research over many years, the treatment of schizophrenia remains a major health issue. Current and emerging treatments for schizophrenia are based upon the classical dopamine and glutamate hypotheses of disease. Existing first and second generation antipsychotic drugs based upon the dopamine hypothesis are limited by their inability to treat all symptom domains and their undesirable side effect profiles. Third generation drugs based upon the glutamate hypothesis of disease are currently under evaluation but are more likely to be used as add on treatments.

Author(s): 
Winchester, Catherine L.
Pratt, Judith A.
Morris, Brian J.
Publication Title: 
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether epigenetic markers predict dimensional ratings of depression in maltreated children. METHOD: A genome-wide methylation study was completed using the Illumina 450K BeadChip array in 94 maltreated and 96 healthy nontraumatized children with saliva-derived DNA. The 450K BeadChip does not include any methylation sites in the exact location as sites in candidate genes previously examined in the literature, so†a†test†for replication of prior research findings was not feasible.

Author(s): 
Weder, Natalie
Zhang, Huiping
Jensen, Kevin
Yang, Bao Zhu
Simen, Arthur
Jackowski, Andrea
Lipschitz, Deborah
Douglas-Palumberi, Heather
Ge, Margrat
Perepletchikova, Francheska
O'Loughlin, Kerry
Hudziak, James J.
Gelernter, Joel
Kaufman, Joan
Publication Title: 
The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry

OBJECTIVE: Whilst dopaminergic dysfunction remains a necessary component involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, our current pharmacological armoury of dopamine antagonists does little to control the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. This suggests other pathological processes must be implicated. This paper aims to elaborate on such theories. METHODS: Data for this review were sourced from the electronic database PUBMED, and was not limited by language or date of publication.

Author(s): 
Davis, Justin
Moylan, Steven
Harvey, Brian H.
Maes, Michael
Berk, Michael

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