BACKGROUND: The brain histaminergic system plays a critical role in maintenance of arousal. Previous studies suggest that histaminergic neurotransmission might be a potential mediator of general anesthetic actions. However, it is not clear whether histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) is necessarily involved in the sedative/hypnotic effects of general anesthetics. METHODS: Male Long Evans rats underwent either TMN orexin-saporin/sham lesion or implantation of intracerebroventricular cannula 2 weeks before the experiment.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains an incompletely understood, common syndrome with significant unmet medical needs. Significant progress has been made in the development of novel therapies aimed at normalizing bowel habit alterations and abdominal discomfort, even though some of the most effective treatments are currently only available for patients under a restricted access program from the FDA. Preclinical evidence supports the potential usefulness of several compounds in development for the treatment of chronic abdominal pain.
BACKGROUND: Orexin A (OXA, hypocretin/hcrt 1) is a newly discovered potential analgesic substance. However, whether OXA is involved in acupuncture analgesia remains unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of spinal OXA in electroacupuncture (EA) analgesia. METHODS: A modified rat model of post-laparotomy pain was adopted and evaluated. Von Frey filaments were used to measure mechanical allodynia of the hind paw and abdomen. EA at 2/15 Hz or 2/100 Hz was performed once on the bilateral ST36 and SP6 for 30 min perioperatively.