Receptors, Nicotinic

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Caloric restriction (CR) markedly extends life span and improves the health of a broad number of species. Energy metabolism fundamentally contributes to the beneficial effects of CR, but the underlying mechanisms that are responsible for this effect remain enigmatic.

Author(s): 
Yuan, Yiyuan
Kadiyala, Chandra S.
Ching, Tsui-Ting
Hakimi, Parvin
Saha, Sudipto
Xu, Hua
Yuan, Chao
Mullangi, Vennela
Wang, Liwen
Fivenson, Elayne
Hanson, Richard W.
Ewing, Rob
Hsu, Ao-Lin
Miyagi, Masaru
Feng, Zhaoyang
Publication Title: 
Journal of molecular neuroscience: MN

The ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is known to regulate a wide variety of developmental and secretory functions in neural and non-neural tissues. The mechanisms that regulate its transcription in these varied tissues are not well understood. Epigenetic processes may play a role in the tissue-specific regulation of mRNA expression from the ?7 nicotinic receptor subunit gene, CHRNA7.

Author(s): 
Canastar, Andrew
Logel, Judith
Graw, Sharon
Finlay-Schultz, Jessica
Osborne, Christina
Palionyte, Milda
Drebing, Carla
Plehaty, Molly
Wilson, Lisa
Eyeson, Rosemary
Leonard, Sherry
Publication Title: 
Epigenetics

Prenatal exposure both to maternal psychiatric illness and psychiatric medication has been linked with adverse child outcomes that affect physiological, emotional and psychiatric development. Studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, may facilitate these effects. In this report, we explore the association between maternal psychiatric illness and treatment during pregnancy and neonatal DNA methylation patterns in a prospectively-characterized clinical cohort of 201 dyads.

Author(s): 
Schroeder, James W.
Smith, Alicia K.
Brennan, Patricia A.
Conneely, Karen N.
Kilaru, Varun
Knight, Bettina T.
Newport, D. Jeffrey
Cubells, Joseph F.
Stowe, Zachary N.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

The increased vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD) seen in individuals with childhood adversity (CA) may result in part from CA-induced epigenetic changes. To examine CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients, we examined peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 candidate genes in 279 African Americans [AAs; 88 with CA (70.5% with AD) and 191 without CA (38.2% with AD)] and 239 European Americans [EAs; 61 with CA (86.9% with AD) and 178 without CA (46.6% with AD)] using Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array assays.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Huiping
Wang, Fan
Kranzler, Henry R.
Zhao, Hongyu
Gelernter, Joel
Publication Title: 
Anesthesiology

BACKGROUND: Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been implicated in the mechanism of action of isoflurane as they are inhibited at subanesthetic concentrations. Despite clear evidence for nicotinic inhibition at relevant isoflurane concentrations, it is unclear what behavioral result ensues, if any. METHODS: The authors have modeled two behaviors common to all general anesthetics, immobility and hypnosis, as minimum alveolar concentration that prevents movement in response to a supramaximal stimulus (MAC) and loss of righting reflex (LORR).

Author(s): 
Flood, Pamela
Sonner, James M.
Gong, Diane
Coates, Kristen M.
Publication Title: 
British Journal of Anaesthesia

BACKGROUND: Inhaled anaesthetics (IAs) produce multiple dose-dependent behavioural effects including amnesia, hypnosis, and immobility in response to painful stimuli that are mediated by distinct anatomical, cellular, and molecular mechanisms. Amnesia is produced at lower anaesthetic concentrations compared with hypnosis or immobility. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate hippocampal neural network correlates of memory and are highly sensitive to IAs.

Author(s): 
Westphalen, R. I.
Gomez, R. S.
Hemmings, H. C.
Publication Title: 
Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology

This study was designed to investigate the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in hypnosis and analgesia induced by emulsified inhalation anesthetics. After having established the mice model of hypnosis and analgesia by intraperitoneal injections of appropriate doses of enflurane, isoflurane or sevoflurane, we intracerebroventricularly or intrathecally injected different doses of nicotine and then observed the effects on the sleeping time using awaken test and the pain threshold in hot-plate test (HPPT) using hot-plate test.

Author(s): 
Yan, Su
Dai, Ti-Jun
Zeng, Yin-Ming
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND: Volatile aromatic compounds such as benzene are general anesthetics that cause amnesia, hypnosis, and immobility in response to noxious stimuli when inhaled. Although these compounds are not used clinically, they are frequently found in commercial items such as solvents and household cleaning products and are abused as inhalant drugs. Volatile aromatic anesthetics are useful pharmacological tools for probing the relationship between chemical structure and drug activity at putative general anesthetic targets.

Author(s): 
Solt, Ken
Kelly, Elizabeth W.
Cotten, Joseph F.
Raines, Douglas E.
Publication Title: 
Anesthesia and Analgesia

BACKGROUND: Carboetomidate is an etomidate derivative that produces hypnosis without inhibiting adrenal corticosteroid synthesis. Similar to etomidate, carboetomidate modulates ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors, but its effects on other ion channel targets of general anesthetics are unknown. METHODS: We compared etomidate and carboetomidate effects on human N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors or neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nnAChRs) expressed in Xenopus oocytes, using 2-microelectrode voltage clamp electrophysiology.

Author(s): 
Pierce, David W.
Pejo, Ervin
Raines, Douglas E.
Forman, Stuart A.
Publication Title: 
Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.)

The high co-morbidity between alcohol (ethanol) and nicotine abuse suggests that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), thought to underlie nicotine dependence, may also be involved in alcohol dependence. The ?2* nAChR subtype serves as a potential interface for these interactions since they are the principle mediators of nicotine dependence and have recently been shown to modulate some acute responses to ethanol. Therefore, the aim of this study was to more fully characterize the role of ?2* nAChRs in ethanol-responsive behaviors in mice after acute exposure to the drug.

Author(s): 
Dawson, Anton
Miles, Micheal F.
Damaj, M. Imad

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