Receptors, Opioid, kappa

Publication Title: 
Cellular and molecular life sciences: CMLS

The dynorphin/?-opioid receptor system has been implicated in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders. In the present review, we present evidence indicating a key role for this system in modulating neurotransmission in brain circuits that subserve mood, motivation, and cognitive function.

Author(s): 
Tejeda, H. A.
Shippenberg, T. S.
Henriksson, R.
Publication Title: 
Trends in Neurosciences

Addictions to cocaine or heroin/prescription opioids [short-acting ?-opioid receptor (MOPr) agonists] involve relapsing cycles, with experimentation/escalating use, withdrawal/abstinence, and relapse/re-escalation. ?-Opioid receptors (KOPr; encoded by OPRK1), and their endogenous agonists, the dynorphins (encoded by PDYN), have counter-modulatory effects on reward caused by cocaine or MOPr agonist exposure, and exhibit plasticity in addictive-like states. KOPr/dynorphin activation is implicated in depression/anxiety, often comorbid with addictions.

Author(s): 
Butelman, Eduardo R.
Yuferov, Vadim
Kreek, Mary Jeanne
Publication Title: 
Neuroscience Letters

Alcohol use and alcohol addiction represent dysfunctional brain circuits resulting from neuroadaptive changes during protracted alcohol exposure and its withdrawal. Alcohol exerts a potent effect on synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation in specific brain regions, providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Epigenetics has recently emerged as a critical regulator of gene expression and synaptic plasticity-related events in the brain.

Author(s): 
Kyzar, Evan J.
Pandey, Subhash C.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Natural Products

Flavonoids have been recognized as the active ingredients of many medicinal plant extracts due to interactions with proteins via phenolic groups and low toxicity. Here, we report the investigation of the flavonoid core as a potential new scaffold for the development of opioid receptor ligands. Biological results suggest that stereochemistry of the C2 and C3 positions is important for antagonist activity and selectivity. Our results also suggest that the actions of Hypericum perforatum may be mediated in part by opioid receptors.

Author(s): 
Katavic, Peter L.
Lamb, Kenneth
Navarro, Hernan
Prisinzano, Thomas E.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

It has been reported that intracerebroventricular injection of a μ receptor antagonist blocked 2 but not 100Hz electroacupuncture (EA)-produced analgesia in an uninjured animal model. Because persistent pain changes neural response to external stimulation, we hypothesized that the mechanisms of EA anti-hyperalgesia may be different in persistent pain than in health. Hyperalgesia, decreased paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to a noxious thermal stimulus, was induced by subcutaneously injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the hind paws of rats.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Yu
Li, Aihui
Lao, Lixing
Xin, Jiajia
Ren, Ke
Berman, Brian M.
Zhang, Rui-Xin
Publication Title: 
Neurochemical Research

Although studies demonstrate that electroacupuncture (EA) alleviates the sensory dimension of pain, they have not addressed EA's effect on the affective dimension. An inflammatory pain rat model, produced by a complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) injection into the hind paw, was combined with a conditioned place avoidance test to determine EA's effects and its underpinning mechanism on the affective dimension of pain. CFA-injected rats showed place aversion, i.e.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Yu
Meng, Xianze
Li, Aihui
Xin, Jiajia
Berman, Brian M.
Lao, Lixing
Tan, Ming
Ren, Ke
Zhang, Rui-Xin
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Progress in the control and treatment of pain may be facilitated by a better understanding of mechanisms underlying nociceptive processing. Here we show that mice subjected to an intermittent fasting diet (IFD) display markedly reduced responses in models of thermal and visceral pain compared with mice fed ad libitum (AL). Pharmacological analyses suggest that a change in the endogenous kappa-opioid system underlies IFD-induced analgesia. The levels of prodynorphin mRNA and kappa-opioid receptors in the spinal cord are higher in IFD than in AL mice.

Author(s): 
de los Santos-Arteaga, Mercedes
Sierra-Domínguez, Sergio A.
Fontanella, German H.
Delgado-García, Jose M.
Carrión, Angel M.
Publication Title: 
Chinese Medical Journal

The effect and mechanism of kappa opiate receptor agonist and high-frequency electrostimulation of acupoints in treating spinal spasticity were studied. The spinal spastic models were made by gradual mechanical compression on the cervical spinal cord of rabbits. 24 prepared rabbits were divided into 3 groups randomly, and each group with 8 rabbits was given intrathecally kappa-receptor agonist 66A-078, kappa-receptor antagonist +66A-078 and normal saline respectively. The degree of spasticity was quantified by both clinical score and electrophysiological examinations.

Author(s): 
Yuan, Y.
Yan, S. C.
Chen, X. H.
Han, J. S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md.: 1985)

This study investigated the efficacy of magnetic stimulation on the reflex cardiovascular responses induced by gastric distension in anesthetized rats and compared these responses to those influenced by electroacupuncture (EA). Unilateral magnetic stimulation (30% intensity, 2 Hz) at the Jianshi-Neiguan acupoints (pericardial meridian, P 5-6) overlying the median nerve on the forelimb for 24 min significantly decreased the reflex pressor response by 32%. This effect was noticeable by 20 min of magnetic stimulation and continued for 24 min.

Author(s): 
Zhou Yi Syuu, Wei
Hsiao, Ian
Lin, Vernon W. H.
Longhurst, John C.
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

It has been reported that intracerebroventricular injection of a μ receptor antagonist blocked 2 but not 100Hz electroacupuncture (EA)-produced analgesia in an uninjured animal model. Because persistent pain changes neural response to external stimulation, we hypothesized that the mechanisms of EA anti-hyperalgesia may be different in persistent pain than in health. Hyperalgesia, decreased paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to a noxious thermal stimulus, was induced by subcutaneously injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the hind paws of rats.

Author(s): 
Zhang, Yu
Li, Aihui
Lao, Lixing
Xin, Jiajia
Ren, Ke
Berman, Brian M.
Zhang, Rui-Xin

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