Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular process involved in the turnover of most cellular constituents and in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. It is well-established that the basal autophagic activity of living cells decreases with age, thus contributing to the accumulation of damaged macromolecules during aging. Conversely, the activity of this catabolic pathway is required for lifespan extension in animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster.
Covalent modifications of DNA and its surrounding chromatin constitute an essential and powerful regulatory mechanism for gene transcription. Epigenetics is the study of this regulatory system. There is now strong albeit indirect evidence that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, the discovery that valproic acid, a widely used psychotropic, has powerful epigenetic effects in clinically relevant concentrations suggests new therapeutic possibilities, i.e., drugs that act on chromatin structure.
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) can cause growth suppressive and proapoptotic effects on retinoids in many types of cancer cells. However, the expression and effects of IGFBP-3 in myeloid leukemia cells have not been elucidated. In this study, we found no IGFBP-3 expression in the human myeloid leukemia cell lines either at baseline or after stimulation with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Human recombinant IGFBP-3 induced growth arrest and apoptosis of HL-60 and NB4 cells.
Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
PURPOSE: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone. The long-term survival of osteosarcoma patients hinges on our ability to prevent and/or treat recurrent and metastatic lesions. Here, we investigated the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and retinoid receptors as a means of differentiation therapy for human osteosarcoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the endogenous expression of PPARgamma and retinoid receptors in a panel of osteosarcoma cells.
BACKGROUND: As one of the least studied bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), BMP9 is one of the most osteogenic BMPs. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is known to play an important role in development, differentiation and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigate the effect of RA signaling on BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both primary MPCs and MPC line are used for BMP9 and RA stimulation. Recombinant adenoviruses are used to deliver BMP9, RARalpha and RXRalpha into MPCs.
For the past 100 years, vitamin A has been implicated as an essential dietary component in host resistance to infectious disease. However, only recently have studies begun to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how vitamin A regulates cell-mediated and humoral-mediated immunity. In this review, we present an overview of the recent discoveries of the role that vitamin A and its metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), play in the regulation of immune cells.
Retinoids are essential in the proper establishment and maintenance of immunity. Although retinoids are implicated in immune related processes, their role in immune cell adhesion has not been well established. In this study, the effect of 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) on human hematopoietic cell adhesion was investigated. 9-cis-RA treatment specifically induced cell adhesion of the human immune cell lines HuT-78, NB4, RPMI 8866 and U937. Due to the prominent role of integrin receptors in mediating immune cell adhesion, we sought to evaluate if cell adhesion was integrin-dependent.
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a critical complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. During GVHD, donor T cells are activated by host antigen-presenting cells and differentiate into T-effector cells (Teffs) that migrate to GVHD target organs. However, local environmental factors influencing Teff differentiation and migration are largely unknown. Vitamin A metabolism within the intestine produces retinoic acid, which contributes to intestinal homeostasis and tolerance induction.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Infants born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are at increased risk of adverse pulmonary outcomes at birth, including meconium aspiration and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Preterm infants with IUGR are at especially high risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a disease hallmarked by alveolar hypoplasia. Although vitamin A supplementation has been shown to decrease the incidence of BPD or death in preterm very low birth weight infants, its potential to reduce BPD or death in preterm infants with IUGR remains unknown.
Berberine, an alkaloid derivative from Berberis vulgaris L., has been used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat diarrhea and diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms for treating diabetes are not fully understood. Recent studies suggested that berberine has many beneficial biological effects, including anti-inflammation. Because type 1 diabetes is caused by T cell-mediated destruction of beta cells and severe islet inflammation, we hypothesized that berberine could ameliorate type 1 diabetes through its immune regulation properties.