An increasing body of evidence indicates a role for oligomers of the amyloid-? peptide (A?) in the neurotoxicity of this peptide and the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several neurotoxic oligomeric forms of A? have been noted ranging from the larger Amyloid ?-Derived Diffusible Ligands (ADDLs) to smaller trimers and dimers of A?. More recently a dodecameric form of A? with a 56 kDa molecular weight, denoted A?*56, was shown to cause memory impairment in AD model mice.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Multiple genetic approaches have identified microRNAs as key effectors in psychiatric disorders as they post-transcriptionally regulate expression of thousands of target genes. However, their role in specific psychiatric diseases remains poorly understood. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, which affect the expression of both microRNAs and coding genes, are critical for our understanding of molecular mechanisms in schizophrenia.
Our current knowledge of the neurobiology of romantic love remains scanty. In view of the complexity of a sentiment like love, it would not be surprising that a diversity of biochemical mechanisms could be involved in the mood changes of the initial stage of a romance. In the present study, we have examined whether the early romantic phase of a loving relationship could be associated with alterations in circulating levels of neurotrophins (NTs).
We examined whether it is possible to identify the emotional content of behaviour from point-light displays where pairs of actors are engaged in interpersonal communication. These actors displayed a series of emotions, which included sadness, anger, joy, disgust, fear, and romantic love. In experiment 1, subjects viewed brief clips of these point-light displays presented the right way up and upside down. In experiment 2, the importance of the interaction between the two figures in the recognition of emotion was examined.
The author describes the many roles that the analyst is called upon to fulfill in the transference during the course of an analysis. The loving transference is distinguished from the erotic transference and the erotized transference. Repetition is discussed, as is narcissism, especially in the light of clinical situations in which oedipal issues take center stage. Four brief clinical examples are presented.
International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology
A major problem in the electrophysiological studies of emotional processing linked to recognition of familiar faces is the unambiguous differentiation of effects due to emotional valence, arousal, and familiarity.
The author reviews evidence that hypothalamic release (or infusion) of the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates the regulation of cooperation and conflict among humans because of three reasons. First, oxytocin enables social categorization of others into in-group versus out-group. Second, oxytocin dampens amygdala activity and enables the development of trust. Third, and finally, oxytocin up-regulates neural circuitries (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus) involved in empathy and other-concern.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The biological mechanisms underlying long-term partner bonds in humans are unclear. The evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is associated with the formation of partner bonds in some species via interactions with brain dopamine reward systems. However, whether it plays a similar role in humans has as yet not been established. Here, we report the results of a discovery and a replication study, each involving a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, pharmaco-functional MRI experiment with 20 heterosexual pair-bonded male volunteers.
Emotionally salient information is well attended and remembered. It has been shown that infatuated individuals have increased attention for their beloved. It is unknown whether this attention bias generalizes to information related to the beloved. Moreover, infatuated individuals report to remember trivial things about their beloved, but this has not yet been tested empirically. In two studies, we tested whether infatuated individuals have increased attention and memory for beloved-related information.
Parental consent to children's participation in vaccine research has resulted in the licensure of essential vaccines. Recruitment to this type of research is typically difficult, however, and many parents decline. In this study, the authors interviewed parents about their decision for or against enrolling their child in a vaccine study. The data analysis suggests that parents' ability to evaluate a vaccine study depends on how attuned they are with science and medicine, either professionally or as consumers of health services.