To elucidate the impact of diet on age-at-death determinations based on molar attrition a comparison was made between the established rate of attrition in three populations; a pre-mediaeval (British), a late mediaeval (Dutch) and a 17-18th century (Dutch) (western European). It appeared that the rate decreased dramatically during the overall time span and that this change was probably diet related and owing to the coarseness of foodstuffs.
Discussions of genetic enhancements often imply deep suspicions about human desires to manipulate or enhance the course of our future. These unspoken assumptions about the arrogance of the quest for perfection are at odds with the normally hopeful resonancy we find in contemporary theology. The author argues that these fears, suspicions and accusations are misplaced. The problem lies not with the question of whether we should pursue perfection, but rather what perfection we are pursuing.
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
The design and quality of 30 recent hypnotherapy trials (years 2000-2008) were assessed using the checklist for evaluating a report of nonpharmacological treatment (CLEAR NPT). Randomization was adequately reported in 53% of studies. The masking of participants and care providers is not feasible in hypnotherapy studies. Assessor masking is rarely introduced in randomized, controlled trials (27%). Reporting and quality of published hypnotherapy trials need to be improved.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
The direct quantitation of active ingredients in solid pharmaceutical tablets by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) is complicated by the dependence of the DESI signal on variables such as spray angles and distances, morphological sample properties, and the difficulty of properly incorporating an internal standard. Here, a DESI MS method for the direct quantitative screening of widely counterfeited antimalarial tablets containing artesunate is presented.
A liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectroscopy method for the quantification of artemisinin in human heparinised plasma has been developed and validated. The method uses Oasis HLB mu-elution solid phase extraction 96-well plates to facilitate a high throughput of 192 samples a day. Artesunate (internal standard) in a plasma-water solution was added to plasma (50 microL) before solid phase extraction.
INTRODUCTION: Malaria continues to be one of the major public health problems in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Artemisinin derivatives (ARTs; artesunate, artemether, and dihydroartemisinin) derived from the herb, Artemisia annua, are the most effective antimalarial drugs available providing rapid cures. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has recommended that all antimalarials must be combined with an artemisinin component (artemisinin-based combination therapy; ACT) for use as first line treatment against malaria.
In the 2010 second edition of WHO's guidelines for the treatment of malaria, the relatively new fixed dose combination dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is included as one of the recommended artemisinin combination therapies. However, experimental testing demonstrates that, due to its intrinsic chemical instability, dihydroartemisinin is not suitable to be used in pharmaceutical formulations. In addition, data show that the currently available dihydroartemisinin preparations fail to meet the internationally accepted stability requirements.
BACKGROUND: Mefloquine-artesunate is a formulation of artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) recommended by the World Health Organization and historically the first ACT used clinically. The use of ACT demands constant monitoring of therapeutic efficacies and drug levels, in order to ensure that optimum drug exposure is achieved and detect reduced susceptibility to these drugs. Quantification of anti-malarial drugs in biological fluids other than blood would provide a more readily applicable method of therapeutic drug monitoring in developing endemic countries.
There has been an increase in the use of aromatherapy in nursing, and many issues are now being raised which need addressing in order to maintain professional credibility and safe practice. These issues include: who can safely practise aromatherapy, what qualifications are required to practise, who provides indemnity, and other issues, including the safety and toxicity of essential oils. A small study was undertaken to examine the differences in drop size of bergamot essential oil.
American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics: Official Publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, Its Constituent Societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to answer this question: to what extent do facial proportions change in comparison with the divine values during growth? METHODS: The changes of the facial proportions in ordinary subjects were analyzed with full-face photos from 20 female and 20 male subjects. In each photo, 5 transverse and 7 vertical reference distances were considered. The facial photos from childhood (age, 6.5 years), adolescence (17 years), and adulthood (30 years) of each subject were compared.