Reference Values

Publication Title: 
Physiology & Behavior

The focus of this review is on current research involving long-term calorie restriction (CR) and the resulting changes observed in physiological and behavioral outcomes in humans. Special emphasis will be given to the first completed clinical studies which are currently investigating the effects of controlled, high-quality energy-restricted diets on both biomarkers of longevity and on the development of chronic diseases related to age in humans.

Author(s): 
Redman, Leanne M.
Martin, Corby K.
Williamson, Donald A.
Ravussin, Eric
Publication Title: 
Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry / Official Journal of the Nitric Oxide Society

BACKGROUND: Japanese longevity is the highest in the world. This is partly explained by low occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, which in turn is attributed to the Japanese traditional diet (JTD). Recent research demonstrates that nitric oxide (NO), a key regulator of vascular integrity, can be generated from nitrate (NO(3)(-)), abundantly found in vegetables. It can reduce blood pressure (BP) via its serial reduction to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and to bioactive NO. Interestingly, JTD is extremely rich in nitrate and the daily consumption is higher than in any other known diet.

Author(s): 
Sobko, Tanja
Marcus, Claude
Govoni, Mirco
Kamiya, Shigeru
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

The mouse has become the favorite mammalian model. Among the many reasons for this privileged position of mice is their genetic proximity to humans, the possibilities of genetically manipulating their genomes and the availability of many tools, mutants and inbred strains. Also in the field of aging, mice have become very robust and reliable research tools.

Author(s): 
Vanhooren, Valerie
Libert, Claude
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

We previously reported that psychological stress is linked to and possibly accelerates cellular aging, as reflected by lower PBMC telomerase and shortened telomeres. Psychological stress is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), with multiple behavioral and physiological mediators. Telomere shortness has been associated with CVD, but the relationship between low telomerase activity, a potential precursor to telomere shortening, and CVD risk factors has not been examined in humans.

Author(s): 
Epel, Elissa S.
Lin, Jue
Wilhelm, Frank H.
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Cawthon, Richard
Adler, Nancy E.
Dolbier, Christyn
Mendes, Wendy B.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere shortening can serve as a biomarker of aging, as telomere length (TL) can decline with age and shortening is positively associated with morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important to identify psychological and behavioral factors linked to accelerated telomere shortening. Stress and poorer metabolic health (greater adiposity, insulin resistance, and cortisol) correlate with shorter telomeres.

Author(s): 
Kiefer, Amy
Lin, Jue
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

Allostatic load, the physiological accumulation of the effects of chronic stressors, has been associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Flattened diurnal cortisol rhythmicity is one of the prototypes of allostatic load, and has been shown to predict shorter survival among women with metastatic breast cancer. The current study compared diurnal cortisol slope in 17 breast cancer patients and 31 controls, and tested associations with variables previously found to be related to cortisol regulation, i.e, abdominal adiposity, perceived stress, social support, and explicit memory.

Author(s): 
Abercrombie, Heather C.
Giese-Davis, Janine
Sephton, Sandra
Epel, Elissa S.
Turner-Cobb, Julie M.
Spiegel, David
Publication Title: 
Psychosomatic Medicine

BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere shortening can serve as a biomarker of aging, as telomere length (TL) can decline with age and shortening is positively associated with morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important to identify psychological and behavioral factors linked to accelerated telomere shortening. Stress and poorer metabolic health (greater adiposity, insulin resistance, and cortisol) correlate with shorter telomeres.

Author(s): 
Kiefer, Amy
Lin, Jue
Blackburn, Elizabeth
Epel, Elissa
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

We previously reported that psychological stress is linked to and possibly accelerates cellular aging, as reflected by lower PBMC telomerase and shortened telomeres. Psychological stress is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), with multiple behavioral and physiological mediators. Telomere shortness has been associated with CVD, but the relationship between low telomerase activity, a potential precursor to telomere shortening, and CVD risk factors has not been examined in humans.

Author(s): 
Epel, Elissa S.
Lin, Jue
Wilhelm, Frank H.
Wolkowitz, Owen M.
Cawthon, Richard
Adler, Nancy E.
Dolbier, Christyn
Mendes, Wendy B.
Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Epigenetic genome modifications such as DNA methylation appear to be involved in various diseases. Here, we suggest that the levels of DNA methylation at the BssHII methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme sites in the human REELIN (RELN) gene in the forebrain vary among individuals. Interestingly, although a statistically significant correlation between the levels of DNA methylation in RELN and age was detected in healthy individuals, no such correlations were seen in either schizophrenic or bipolar patients.

Author(s): 
Tamura, Y.
Kunugi, H.
Ohashi, J.
Hohjoh, H.
Publication Title: 
Psychoneuroendocrinology

Disturbances of volume regulating peptides like vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have been described in early abstinent patients. Aim of the present study was to evaluate possible alterations of the promoter-related DNA methylation of the ANP and vasopressin precursor genes and the related mRNA-expression of these genes in early alcohol withdrawal. We analyzed blood samples of 57 healthy controls and of 111 patients suffering from alcohol dependence that were admitted for detoxification treatment.

Author(s): 
Hillemacher, Thomas
Frieling, Helge
Luber, Katja
Yazici, Ayfer
Muschler, Marc A. N.
Lenz, Bernd
Wilhelm, Julia
Kornhuber, Johannes
Bleich, Stefan

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