Reference Values

Publication Title: 
Zeitschrift F�r Naturforschung. C, Journal of Biosciences

The sedative properties of the essential oil of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller) and of its main constituents--linalool and linalyl acetate--were investigated in mice followed up in a series of experimental procedures. The significant decrease in the motility of female and male laboratory animals under standardized experimental conditions is found to be closely dependent on the exposure time to the drugs. Nevertheless after an injection of caffeine into mice a hyperactivity was observed which was reduced to nearly a normal motility only by inhalation of these fragrance drugs.

Buchbauer, G.
Jirovetz, L.
J�ger, W.
Dietrich, H.
Plank, C.
Publication Title: 
Explore (New York, N.Y.)

CONTEXT: Aromatherapy is frequently recommended for children but children's preferences for specific essential oils are not well documented. OBJECTIVE: To measure preferences of school aged children for essential oils based on gender and ethnicity. DESIGN: Descriptive study measuring children's responses to and preferences for selected essential oils. SETTING: Pediatric integrative medicine clinic in a Midwestern children's hospital.

Fitzgerald, Maura
Culbert, Timothy
Finkelstein, Marsha
Green, Mindy
Johnson, Anjanette
Chen, Song
Publication Title: 
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings: The Official Journal of Regional and State Allergy Societies

Adult asthmatics, ranging from 19 to 52 years from an asthma and allergy clinic in a university setting volunteered to participate in the study. The 17 students were randomly divided into yoga (9 subjects) and nonyoga control (8 subjects) groups. The yoga group was taught a set of breathing and relaxation techniques including breath slowing exercises (pranayama), physical postures (yogasanas), and meditation. Yoga techniques were taught at the university health center, three times a week for 16 weeks.

Vedanthan, P. K.
Kesavalu, L. N.
Murthy, K. C.
Duvall, K.
Hall, M. J.
Baker, S.
Nagarathna, S.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty healthy men in the age group of 25-35 years volunteered for the study. They were randomly divided in two groups of 15 each. Group 1 subjects served as controls and performed body flexibility exercises for 40 minutes and slow running for 20 minutes during morning hours and played games for 60 minutes during evening hours daily for 3 months.

Harinath, Kasiganesan
Malhotra, Anand Sawarup
Pal, Karan
Prasad, Rajendra
Kumar, Rajesh
Kain, Trilok Chand
Rai, Lajpat
Sawhney, Ramesh Chand
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVE: Several studies suggest that yoga can decrease oxidative stress. However reports are scanty regarding whether yoga training can improve the glutathione level of individual. This study is designed to appraise the role of yoga in maintaining glutathione (reduced and oxidized) levels and antioxidant status. STUDY DESIGN: This study was conducted on healthy male volunteers from the Indian Navy, who were divided into two groups--a yoga (n = 30) group and a control (n = 21) group. The yoga group was trained in yoga for 6 months.

Sinha, Sanchari
Singh, Som Nath
Monga, Y. P.
Ray, Uday Sankar
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of slow pace bhastrika pranayama (respiratory rate 6/min) for 5 minutes on heart rate and blood pressure and the effect of the same breathing exercise for the same duration of time (5 minutes) following oral intake of hyoscine-N-butylbromide (Buscopan), a parasympathetic blocker drug. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Heart rate and blood pressure of volunteers (n = 39, age = 25-40 years) was recorded following standard procedure.

Pramanik, Tapas
Sharma, Hari Om
Mishra, Suchita
Mishra, Anurag
Prajapati, Rajesh
Singh, Smriti
Publication Title: 
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.)

OBJECTIVES: Yoga is a popular form of exercise in the Western world, and yoga's effects on pulmonary function have been investigated previously. The purpose of this article is to review this research systematically and determine if regular yoga training improves pulmonary function in apparently healthy individuals. METHODS: Using the Alternative Health Watch, the Physical Education Index, Medline,(®) and the SPORTdiscus databases; and the keywords yoga, respiration, and pulmonary function, a comprehensive search was conducted that yielded 57 studies.

Abel, Allison N.
Lloyd, Lisa K.
Williams, James S.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Assessment

In the present article, the authors report on the development of a scale for the measurement of the militant extremist mind-set. A previous pilot study identified 56 statements selected from writings of various terrorist groups as well as from psychological, historical, and political texts on terrorism. These statements, together with measures of personality, social attitudes, values, and social cynicism, were administered to participants from 9 countries (N = 2,424). A series of exploratory factor analyses of 56 statements produced 3 factors: Proviolence, Vile World, and Divine Power.

Stankov, Lazar
Saucier, Gerard
Knezevi?, Goran
Publication Title: 
Social Science Research

The Catholic Church has had a strong influence on the Chilean legal and social landscape in ways that have adversely affected victims of intimate partner violence; e.g., it succeeded until just five years ago in blocking efforts to legalize divorce. At the same time, quantitative studies based on survey data from the United States and other countries show a generally favorable influence of religion on health and many other domains of life, including intimate partner violence. The present study explores the puzzle posed by these seemingly opposing macro- and micro-level forces.

Lehrer, Evelyn L.
Lehrer, Vivian L.
Krauss, Ramona C.
Publication Title: 
International Journal of Cardiology

We report extremely prominent heart rate oscillations associated with slow breathing during specific traditional forms of Chinese Chi and Kundalini Yoga meditation techniques in healthy young adults. We applied both spectral analysis and a novel analytic technique based on the Hilbert transform to quantify these heart rate dynamics.

Peng, C. K.
Mietus, J. E.
Liu, Y.
Khalsa, G.
Douglas, P. S.
Benson, H.
Goldberger, A. L.


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