Regeneration

Publication Title: 
MÈdecine Sciences: M/S

Aging is a complex process that is accompanied by the onset of a series of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Aging is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among the genes that regulate aging, the insulin-FOXO signaling pathway plays a central role, as this pathway regulates lifespan in multiple species, such as worms, flies, and mice. In humans, exceptional longevity - being a centenarian - is also associated with genetic variation in this insulin-FOXO pathway.

Author(s): 
Brunet, Anne
Publication Title: 
MÈdecine Sciences: M/S

Aging is a complex process that is accompanied by the onset of a series of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Aging is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among the genes that regulate aging, the insulin-FOXO signaling pathway plays a central role, as this pathway regulates lifespan in multiple species, such as worms, flies, and mice. In humans, exceptional longevity - being a centenarian - is also associated with genetic variation in this insulin-FOXO pathway.

Author(s): 
Brunet, Anne
Publication Title: 
Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Ageing is a biological certainty for all living organisms, and is due to the loss of tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity (except for newts) in which somatic stem cells are thought to play an important role. Many ageing-associated dysfunctions in stem cells have been described, but it remains ambiguous whether these are merely an outcome of ageing or are causal. Parabiotic animal studies suggest there are factors in the systemic environment that can influence the regenerative capacity of tissues.

Author(s): 
McCullagh, Karl J. A.
Publication Title: 
Cell

Cell differentiation is an essential process for the development, growth, reproduction, and longevity of all multicellular organisms, and its regulation has been the focus of intense investigation for the past four decades. The study of natural and induced stem cells has ushered an age of re-examination of what it means to be a stem or a differentiated cell.

Author(s): 
S·nchez Alvarado, Alejandro
Yamanaka, Shinya
Publication Title: 
Mayo Clinic Proceedings

Many of the aging-related morbidities, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, and infectious susceptibility, are linked to a decline in immune competence with a concomitant rise in proinflammatory immunity, placing the process of immune aging at the center of aging biology. Immune aging affects individuals older than 50 years and is accelerated in patients with the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. Immune aging results in a marked decline in protective immune responses and a parallel increase in tissue inflammatory responses.

Author(s): 
Hohensinner, Philipp J.
Goronzy, Jˆrg J.
Weyand, Cornelia M.
Publication Title: 
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

An overview of the concept of regeneration in Tibetan medicine is presented with descriptions of detoxification and tonification longevity protocols. The body must be fortified before receiving stronger treatments for regeneration. All disease is brought into balance with understanding of the interplay of the five elements, three humors, and their qualities and locations. The example of multiple sclerosis (MS) is given.

Author(s): 
Dhondup, Lobsang
Husted, Cynthia
Publication Title: 
Rejuvenation Research

According to the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, when Eos asked Zeus for Tithonus to be granted immortality, she forgot to ask for eternal youth. Applied Healthspan Engineering (AHE) seeks to address this problem. All organisms have a minimal level of functional reserve required to sustain life that eventually declines to a point incompatible with survival at death. AHE seeks to maintain or restore optimal functional reserve of critical tissues and organs. Tissue reserve correlates with well being.

Author(s): 
Larrick, James W.
Mendelsohn, Andrew
Publication Title: 
MÈdecine Sciences: M/S

Aging is a complex process that is accompanied by the onset of a series of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Aging is controlled by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Among the genes that regulate aging, the insulin-FOXO signaling pathway plays a central role, as this pathway regulates lifespan in multiple species, such as worms, flies, and mice. In humans, exceptional longevity - being a centenarian - is also associated with genetic variation in this insulin-FOXO pathway.

Author(s): 
Brunet, Anne
Publication Title: 
Nature

How adult tissue stem and niche cells respond to the nutritional state of an organism is not well understood. Here we find that Paneth cells, a key constituent of the mammalian intestinal stem-cell (ISC) niche, augment stem-cell function in response to calorie restriction. Calorie restriction acts by reducing mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signalling in Paneth cells, and the ISC-enhancing effects of calorie restriction can be mimicked by rapamycin.

Author(s): 
Yilmaz, ÷mer H.
Katajisto, Pekka
Lamming, Dudley W.
G¸ltekin, Yetis
Bauer-Rowe, Khristian E.
Sengupta, Shomit
Birsoy, Kivanc
Dursun, Abdulmetin
Yilmaz, V. Onur
Selig, Martin
Nielsen, G. Petur
Mino-Kenudson, Mari
Zukerberg, Lawrence R.
Bhan, Atul K.
Deshpande, Vikram
Sabatini, David M.
Publication Title: 
Genetics and molecular research: GMR

Finding an efficient and affordable treatment against malaria is still a challenge for medicine. Artemisinin is an effective anti-malarial drug isolated from Artemisia annua. However, the artemisinin content of A. annua is very low. We used transgenic technology to increase the artemisinin content of A. annua by overexpressing cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cyp71av1) and cytochrome P450 reductase (cpr) genes. CYP71AV1 is a key enzyme in the artemisinin biosynthesis pathway, while CPR is a redox partner for CYP71AV1. Eight independent transgenic A.

Author(s): 
Shen, Q.
Chen, Y. F.
Wang, T.
Wu, S. Y.
Lu, X.
Zhang, L.
Zhang, F. Y.
Jiang, W. M.
Wang, G. F.
Tang, K. X.

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