Reinforcement (Psychology)

Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

There has been unprecedented interest in the prosocial effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin in humans over the last decade. A range of studies has demonstrated correlations between basal oxytocin levels and the strength of social and bonding behaviors both in healthy individuals and in those suffering from psychiatric disorders. Mounting evidence suggests associations between polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene and prosocial behaviors and there may also be important epigenetic effects.

Author(s): 
Striepens, Nadine
Kendrick, Keith M.
Maier, Wolfgang
Hurlemann, RenÈ
Publication Title: 
Journal of Adolescence

This study tested the mediating roles of cognitive reappraisal and attentional preferences in the relationship between hope and psychosocial well-being among 712 adolescents. Results of the structural equation modeling revealed that the beneficial relation of hope to subjective happiness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties was partially mediated by attention to positive information but not cognitive reappraisal.

Author(s): 
Yeung, Dannii Y.
Ho, Samuel M. Y.
Mak, Christine W. Y.
Publication Title: 
Recherche En Soins Infirmiers

Social support refers to the presence of individuals providing emotional or material resources. Its four components are: integration, structure, function, and quality. This article presents empirical and theoretical data, as well as criticism of studies which examine the relationship between social support, global health and cardiovascular health, also evaluating direct or moderating contributions to the adoption and maintenance of health behaviours in persons with cardiovascular disease. Concrete implications for nursing practice are reviewed.

Author(s): 
Chouinard, Maud-Christine
Robichaud-Ekstrand, Sylvie
Publication Title: 
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review

Antisocial behavior and substance misuse are forms of problem behavior demonstrating considerable continuity over time. Accordingly, problem behavior influences interpersonal contexts across the life course, which may result in the replication of coercive interactions and a problem behavior lifestyle within romantic relationships.

Author(s): 
Rhule-Louie, Dana M.
McMahon, Robert J.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Genetic Psychology

The authors addressed whether parental expression of disappointment should be included as a distinct factor in M. L. Hoffman's well-established typology of parenting styles (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion). Hoffman's 3-factor model, along with a more inclusive 4-factor model (induction, love withdrawal, power assertion, and expressions of disappointment), were respectively evaluated in exploratory factor analyses. The analysis utilized extant data comprised of responses by children (N = 73) and their mothers (N = 67) to an adaptation of M. L. Hoffman and H. D.

Author(s): 
Patrick, Renee B.
Gibbs, John C.
Publication Title: 
Behaviour Research and Therapy

We investigated associations between adult attachment, symptoms and interpersonal functioning, including therapeutic relationships in 96 patients with psychosis. Using a prospective design, we also assessed changes in attachment in both psychiatrically unstable and stable groups. We measured attachment using the Psychosis Attachment Measure (PAM) and interpersonal problems and therapeutic relationships were assessed from both psychiatric staff and patient perspectives. Avoidant attachment was associated with positive symptoms, negative symptoms and paranoia.

Author(s): 
Berry, Katherine
Barrowclough, Christine
Wearden, Alison
Publication Title: 
Journal of Youth and Adolescence

Within the fields of socialization and moral development, the relationship of parenting to adolescents' sense of morality and self has been understudied. This study investigated the relationships between perceived parental disciplinary techniques and moral identity among early and middle adolescents. Participants included 93 (54% female) 5th, 8th and 10th graders, as well as their mothers. Students completed self-report measures concerning their mothers' disciplinary techniques and moral self-concept; mothers reported specifically on parental discipline frequency.

Author(s): 
Patrick, Renee B.
Gibbs, John C.
Publication Title: 
Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.)

Interventions from Functional Analytic Psychotherapy focus on what happens in-session between clients and therapists to create more intense and curative therapeutic relationships. The methods described--being aware of clients' clinically relevant behaviors, being courageous in evoking clinically relevant behaviors, reinforcing improvements with therapeutic love, and using behavioral interpretations to help clients generalize changes to daily life--point to compelling directions in personal growth and change for both clients and therapists.

Author(s): 
Tsai, Mavis
Callaghan, Glenn M.
Kohlenberg, Robert J.
Publication Title: 
Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology

There has been unprecedented interest in the prosocial effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin in humans over the last decade. A range of studies has demonstrated correlations between basal oxytocin levels and the strength of social and bonding behaviors both in healthy individuals and in those suffering from psychiatric disorders. Mounting evidence suggests associations between polymorphisms in the oxytocin receptor gene and prosocial behaviors and there may also be important epigenetic effects.

Author(s): 
Striepens, Nadine
Kendrick, Keith M.
Maier, Wolfgang
Hurlemann, RenÈ
Publication Title: 
Biological Cybernetics

Optimization of performance in collective systems often requires altruism. The emergence and stabilization of altruistic behaviors are difficult to achieve because the agents incur a cost when behaving altruistically. In this paper, we propose a biologically inspired strategy to learn stable altruistic behaviors in artificial multi-agent systems, namely reciprocal altruism.

Author(s): 
Zamora, J.
Mill·n, J. R.
Murciano, A.

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