Major life events involving social rejection are strongly associated with onset of depression. To account for this relation, we propose a psychobiological model in which rejection-related stressors elicit a distinct and integrated set of cognitive, emotional, and biological changes that may evoke depression. In this model, social rejection events activate brain regions involved in processing negative affect and rejection-related distress (e.g., anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex).
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in stress responses may be one mechanism underlying gender differences in depression. We hypothesized that men and women would show different adrenocortical responses to different stressors. In particular, we predicted that women would show greater responses to social rejection stressors, whereas men would demonstrate greater responses to achievement stressors.
The psychoanalytic literature on shame is critically reviewed. A vagueness and incompleteness in formulations is noted which appears to be related to an adherence to the structural and topographical models. Shame is shown to have a clearly defined place in object-relations theory, in particular within the theory of narcissism as developed elsewhere by the author. It is the signal, affective and cognitive, that a move from 'self-narcissism' to 'object-narcissism' is about to occur.
Case records written between 1939 and 1945 were used to divide 232 males among four categories, according to how they had been treated as children: "Neglected," "Abused," "Rejected," or "Loved." The groups were similar in terms of poverty and proportions from broken homes. The abused and the rejected were more likely to have been reared by aggressive parents. In addition, the abused were most likely to have also been exposed to high demands for adult behaviors and dominant fathers.
In an attempt to investigate the parental rearing patterns associated with presence of suicidal thoughts, a measure of child rearing patterns (EMBU) and the EPQ measure of personality dimensions were administered to 85 university students, 72 medical and surgical patients, and 125 employees of a state department, along with two questions tapping suicidal thoughts.
This study investigated the differences in the mother-daughter relationship of pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents. Data were gathered from questionnaires completed by 40 nonpregnant and 20 pregnant adolescents. All respondents were single, secondary school students matched on all demographic variables except grade point average which was significantly lower for the pregnant group. Significant differences in perception of their relationships with their mothers were found on love, attention, and interdependence, with the pregnant group perceiving less of these factors.
The occurrence of possible differences in rearing practices related to social class has been investigated in a series of 125 depressed patients by means of a special inventory - the EMBU - constructed by our group. Three factors derived from the EMBU in the course of previous studies: "rejection", "emotional warmth", "overprotection" have been taken into account. The rearing practices experienced by subjects belonging to different social classes did not differ concerning "emotional warmth".
Young adult male homosexuals were recruited from a homosexual group and were given the Roe-Siegelman Parent-Child Relations questionnaire and the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale. Compared to a control group of heterosexuals, the homosexual group rated their mothers significantly more rejecting and their fathers less loving and more rejecting. The Love-Reject factor also showed the between-groups difference for the ratings of fathers; for mothers, the Love-Reject factor difference was marginally significant.
Counseling and clinical observations clarify views commonly made about the pain of breaking-up a love relationship. Anecdotal reports as presented in popular music, novels, movies, and television programs illustrate the public's general awareness of the emotional dilemma of ending a relationship. Love is a strong pleasurable emotional state. Behavioral and emotional problems can result from rejection and the pain due to the loss of a love.
Adopted children have two sets of parents as possible identification figures. The usually meager facts about the birthparents are shifted and embellished in response to ongoing developmental needs, and constitute a major contribution to identity formation. A description of this developmental course is offered, and implications of birthparent fantasies for the treatment of adopted persons are discussed.