Object-relations theory implicitly assumes primary drives to cope with the fact that some kinds of transaction with objects are not gratifying but are feared and avoided. Fairbairn's conception of motivation assumes that there is an independent primary drive which may be called 'need for love', independent of other gratifications. Such an instinctual-drive concept is defined solely by its direction towards a goal, and rests on an arbitrary intuition as to the 'real' goal of observed behaviour.
Five studies examined the contribution of attachment style to mortality salience effects. In Study 1, mortality salience led to more severe judgments of transgressions only among anxious-ambivalent and avoidant persons but not among secure persons. In addition, whereas anxious-ambivalent persons showed immediate and delayed increases in severity judgments, avoidant persons showed this response only after a delay period. In Study 2, anxious-ambivalent persons showed immediate and delayed increases in death-thought accessibility after death reminders.
Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
Suffering is commonly seen as an unconscious effort to alleviate painful feelings of guilt. However, suffering also aims at averting loss of ego functions and hence loss of mental stability. This second function of suffering is discussed in the light of Freud's observations of characters wrecked by success and Weiss's ideas about mutual love as a threat to mental stability.
This paper investigates the identity implications of silence about genocide in commemorations of American Thanksgiving. In Study 1 we assessed the co-occurrence of national glorification themes with different forms of silence in commemoration products by conducting a content analysis of presidential Thanksgiving proclamations.