Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi = Japanese Journal of Psychopharmacology
Sandalwood oil is widely used in aromatherapy for alleviating various symptoms. Santalol, a major component of sandalwood oil, has been reported to have central nervous system depressant effects such as sedation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of santalol on the sleep-wake cycle in sleep-disturbed rats. When inhaled at a concentration of 5 X 10(-2) ppm, santalol caused a significant decrease in total waking time and an increase in total non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, is an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and potent antioxidant. We hypothesized that quercetin blocks airway epithelial cell chemokine expression via PI 3-kinase-dependent mechanisms. Pretreatment with quercetin and the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 each reduced TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (also called CCL2) expression in cultured human airway epithelial cells.
In cystic fibrosis reduced CFTR function may alter redox properties of airway epithelial cells. Redox-sensitive GFP (roGFP1) and imaging microscopy were used to measure the redox potentials of the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, and cell surface of cystic fibrosis nasal epithelial cells and CFTR-corrected cells. We also measured glutathione and cysteine thiol redox states in cell lysates and apical fluids to provide coverage over a range of redox potentials and environments that might be affected by CFTR.
American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Activation of an innate immune response in airway epithelia by the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires bacterial expression of flagellin. Addition of flagellin (10(-7) M) to airway epithelial cell monolayers (Calu-3, airway serous cell-like) increased Cl(-) secretion (I(Cl)) beginning after 3-10 min, reaching a plateau after 20-45 min at DeltaI(Cl) = 15-50 microA/cm(2). Similar, although 10-fold smaller, responses were observed in well-differentiated bronchial epithelial cultures.
Oxidative stress plays a significant role in allergic airway inflammation. Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol (alone or combined with ascorbate/vitamin C) has been assessed as an intervention for allergic airway diseases with conflicting results. Enhancing levels of airway antioxidants with oral supplements has been suggested as an intervention to protect individuals from the effect of inhaled oxidants, although it is unclear whether supplementation changes tocopherol or vitamin C levels in both serum and airway fluids.
The composition of the lung microbiome contributes to both health and disease, including obstructive lung disease. Because it has been estimated that over 70% of the bacterial species on body surfaces cannot be cultured by currently available techniques, traditional culture techniques are no longer the gold standard for microbial investigation. Advanced techniques that identify bacterial sequences, including the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, have provided new insights into the depth and breadth of microbiota present both in the diseased and normal lung.
The anti-inflammatory phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) modulates immune and inflammatory responses in mouse models of colitis and obesity. ABA has been identified as a ligand of lanthionine synthetase C-like 2, a novel therapeutic target upstream of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) pathway. The goal of this study was to investigate the immune modulatory mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory efficacy of ABA against influenza-associated pulmonary inflammation.
Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, I Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
The present study included 73 patients presenting with bronchial asthma (BA) and concomitant allergic rhinitis (AR). Based on the results of their examination, a program of their two-step treatment was proposed including elimination therapy during 5-7 days followed by the combined treatment with the use of physical factors, such as peloid therapy, supratonal frequency currents, inhalations, massage, and remedial gymnastics. This approach allows to significantly reduce the frequency of clinical manifestations of the primary and concomitant diseases.
Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic
A chronic inflammatory disorder of the respiratory airways, asthma is characterized by bronchial airway inflammation resulting in increased mucus production and airway hyper-responsiveness. The resultant symptomatology includes episodes of wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Asthma is a multifactorial disease process with genetic, allergic, environmental, infectious, emotional, and nutritional components. The underlying pathophysiology of asthma is airway inflammation.
Copious historical reviews of Calabrese and Baldwin (Hum Exp Toxicol 2000; 19: 2-31; 32-40) attribute the description of the reversal of cellular activities from stimulation at low doses to inhibition at high doses by Schulz (Pflüg Arch 1988; 42: 517-41) as the prioritizing contribution to the phenomenon which was later called hormesis. However, an extended search of the older literature uncovers Virchow (Virch Arch 1854; 6: 133-34) as the first descriptor, three and a half decades in advance of Schulz.