Retention (Psychology)

Publication Title: 
Journal of Neurophysiology

Brief bouts of sublethal ischemia have been shown to protect exposed tissue (ischemic conditioning) and tissues at remote sites (remote ischemic conditioning) against subsequent ischemic challenges. Given that the mechanisms of this protective phenomenon are multifactorial and epigenetic, we postulated that remote limb ischemic conditioning (RLIC) might enhance mechanisms responsible for neural plasticity, and thereby facilitate learning.

Author(s): 
Cherry-Allen, Kendra M.
Gidday, Jeff M.
Lee, Jin-Moo
Hershey, Tamara
Lang, Catherine E.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Author(s): 
McConkey, K. M.
Kinoshita, S.
Publication Title: 
The Journal of General Psychology

Moderately susceptible subjects (N = 30) initially judged 30 line drawings of objects for pleasantness (deep processing) and 30 line drawings for visual complexity (shallow processing), after which they were given two immediate recall tests. Following a 48-hr delay, subjects were allocated randomly to hypnosis, simulation, or neutral control conditions and were tested four more times. Subjects produced more correct and incorrect responses over the six trials and gave a higher number of correct responses for deep items than for shallow items.

Author(s): 
McKelvie, S. J.
Pullara, M.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition

Two experiments investigated whether hypnosis enhances memory retrieval per se or merely increases a person's willingness to report recollections. Both experiments assessed immediate and delayed (i.e., 1 week) recall for pictorial stimuli. In Experiment 1, following an initial waking baseline recall, subjects of high or low hypnotic ability completed a series of recall trials conducted either in hypnosis or in the walking condition. The classic hypermnesia effect was obtained, but with no supplemental contribution of hypnosis.

Author(s): 
Dinges, D. F.
Whitehouse, W. G.
Orne, E. C.
Powell, J. W.
Orne, M. T.
Erdelyi, M. H.
Publication Title: 
Psychological Medicine

Two groups of 16 subjects, 8 of each gender, were examined on two occasions, one group before and after restricted environmental stimulation with floatation, and the other group without floatation was the control group. They were examined with a tactile object discrimination task carried out with each hand separately while blindfolded, and with a recognition memory test for words and unfamiliar faces, a test validated on neurological patients with left and right hemispheric lesions respectively.

Author(s): 
Raab, J.
Gruzelier, J.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

This article reviews the seven principles of memory function that set limits on the degree to which any attempt to recover a long-forgotten memory can succeed: encoding, organization, time dependency, cue dependency, encoding specificity, schematic processing, and reconstruction. In the absence of independent corroboration, there is no "litmus test" that can reliably distinguish true from false memories, or memories that are based on perception from those that are based on imagination.

Author(s): 
Kihlstrom, J. F.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Hypnosis is often colloquially associated with "the power of suggestion"; however, some cognitive memory researchers believe that suggestions have power even without hypnosis. A well-known phenomenon in cognitive psychology is the "misinformation effect," in which subjects who are misled about previously witnessed events often integrate that inaccurate postevent information into their accounts of the event. In the present article, we review the misinformation literature in four major rounds according to the nature of the memory distortion.

Author(s): 
Garry, M.
Loftus, E. F.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Although a long tradition exists suggesting that hypnosis can enhance memory (hypnotic hypermnesia), the experimental literature is quite mixed. When, however, laboratory studies are classified according to the type of stimulus and memory tests employed, a remarkable orderliness of outcomes emerges: Recall tests for high-sense stimuli (e.g., poetry, meaningful pictures) almost always produce hypermnesia, but not recognition tests for low-sense stimuli (e.g., nonsense syllables, word lists).

Author(s): 
Erdelyi, M. H.
Publication Title: 
The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Two amnesic automobile accident victims remembered the information needed for their ongoing lawsuits during hypnosis. Meeting the recording requirements of the Hurd safeguards led to the admission of hypnotically influenced testimony in court in one case, whereas failure to record led to exclusion in the other. In both cases, closed-head trauma almost certainly prevented long-term memory consolidation. Thus adherence to guidelines for forensic hypnosis legitimized distortions in recall instead of preventing them.

Author(s): 
Karlin, R. A.
Publication Title: 
CNS neuroscience & therapeutics

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate hypnosedative action of Zopiclone by using animal models for hypnosis and sedation (anxiolysis); and to further evaluate whether this hypnosedation impairs memory-learning in albino mice like conventional hypnosedatives. METHODS: For evaluation of hypnosedation, following experiments were performed in albino mice: (1) righting reflex test, (2) pentobarbitone sleeping time potentiation, (3) open field apparatus behavior, and (4) elevated plus maze performance.

Author(s): 
Kadam, Uma
Bhosale, Anand

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