Retina

Publication Title: 
PLoS biology

An increasing number of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, or function have been found to be mutated in metabolic disorders and neurological diseases such as Leigh Syndrome. In a forward genetic screen to identify genes required for neuronal function and survival in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons, we have identified mutations in the mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA synthetase, Aats-met, the homologue of human MARS2. The fly mutants exhibit age-dependent degeneration of photoreceptors, shortened lifespan, and reduced cell proliferation in epithelial tissues.

Author(s): 
Bayat, Vafa
Thiffault, Isabelle
Jaiswal, Manish
TÈtreault, Martine
Donti, Taraka
Sasarman, Florin
Bernard, GeneviËve
Demers-Lamarche, Julie
Dicaire, Marie-JosÈe
Mathieu, Jean
Vanasse, Michel
Bouchard, Jean-Pierre
Rioux, Marie-France
Lourenco, Charles M.
Li, Zhihong
Haueter, Claire
Shoubridge, Eric A.
Graham, Brett H.
Brais, Bernard
Bellen, Hugo J.
Publication Title: 
Genes & Development

The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) chromatin-modifying complex possesses acetyltransferase and deubiquitinase activities. Within this modular complex, Ataxin-7 anchors the deubiquitinase activity to the larger complex. Here we identified and characterized Drosophila Ataxin-7 and found that reduction of Ataxin-7 protein results in loss of components from the SAGA complex.

Author(s): 
Mohan, Ryan D.
Dialynas, George
Weake, Vikki M.
Liu, Jianqi
Martin-Brown, Skylar
Florens, Laurence
Washburn, Michael P.
Workman, Jerry L.
Abmayr, Susan M.
Publication Title: 
Current biology: CB

As the ear has dual functions for audition and balance, the eye has a dual role in detecting light for a wide range of behavioral and physiological functions separate from sight. These responses are driven primarily by stimulation of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that are most sensitive to short-wavelength ( approximately 480 nm) blue light and remain functional in the absence of rods and cones. We examined the spectral sensitivity of non-image-forming responses in two profoundly blind subjects lacking functional rods and cones (one male, 56 yr old; one female, 87 yr old).

Author(s): 
Zaidi, Farhan H.
Hull, Joseph T.
Peirson, Stuart N.
Wulff, Katharina
Aeschbach, Daniel
Gooley, Joshua J.
Brainard, George C.
Gregory-Evans, Kevin
Rizzo, Joseph F.
Czeisler, Charles A.
Foster, Russell G.
Moseley, Merrick J.
Lockley, Steven W.
Publication Title: 
Science Translational Medicine

In humans, modulation of circadian rhythms by light is thought to be mediated primarily by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells, not rods or cones. Melanopsin cells are intrinsically blue light-sensitive but also receive input from visual photoreceptors. We therefore tested in humans whether cone photoreceptors contribute to the regulation of circadian and neuroendocrine light responses.

Author(s): 
Gooley, Joshua J.
Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.
Brainard, George C.
Kronauer, Richard E.
Czeisler, Charles A.
Lockley, Steven W.
Publication Title: 
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

PURPOSE: Mutations in ANT, a mitochondrial ATP transporter, are typically associated with myopathy. Because of the high metabolic demands of the retina, the authors examined whether elimination of the Ant1 isoform in a transgenic mouse affects retinal function or morphology. METHODS: RT-PCR was used to confirm Ant1 expression in retinas of wild-type (WT) or Ant1(-/-) mice. Full-field ERGs were used to test retinal function under dark- and light-adapted conditions and the recovery of the photoresponse to a bright flash.

Author(s): 
Phillips, M. Joseph
Webb-Wood, Sarah
Faulkner, Amanda E.
Jabbar, Seema B.
Biousse, Valerie
Newman, Nancy J.
Do, Vi T.
Boatright, Jeffrey H.
Wallace, Douglas C.
Pardue, Machelle T.
Publication Title: 
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

PURPOSE: Reliable outcome measures are needed to estimate changes in peripheral vision during future treatment clinical trials for retinal degeneration patients. The authors examined the short-term variability of Goldmann visual field (GVF) results converted to retinal areas in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) subjects. METHODS: Two within-visit GVFs were obtained from one eye each of 37 RP subjects with visual acuity better than 20/400 by a single experienced operator using the V4e (n = 28) or III4e (n = 12) target, or both.

Author(s): 
Bittner, Ava K.
Iftikhar, Mian Haris
Dagnelie, Gislin
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological Research: The Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

Dietary supplementation with ω-3 long chain fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has increased in popularity in recent years and adequate DHA supplementation during pregnancy and early childhood is of clinical importance. Some evidence has been built for the neuro-cognitive benefits of supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) such as DHA during pregnancy; however, recent data indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties may be of at least equal significance.

Author(s): 
Rogers, Lynette K.
Valentine, Christina J.
Keim, Sarah A.
Publication Title: 
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) for acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). METHODS: Records from 101 CRAO patients treated with either IAT (n = 57) or standard treatment (ST; n = 44) were retrospectively reviewed. ST consisted of ocular massage and intraocular pressure-lowering agents.

Author(s): 
Ahn, Seong Joon
Kim, Jae Min
Hong, Jeong-Ho
Woo, Se Joon
Ahn, Jeeyun
Park, Kyu Hyung
Han, Moon-Ku
Jung, Cheolkyu
Publication Title: 
Pharmacological Research: The Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society

Dietary supplementation with ω-3 long chain fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has increased in popularity in recent years and adequate DHA supplementation during pregnancy and early childhood is of clinical importance. Some evidence has been built for the neuro-cognitive benefits of supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) such as DHA during pregnancy; however, recent data indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties may be of at least equal significance.

Author(s): 
Rogers, Lynette K.
Valentine, Christina J.
Keim, Sarah A.
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Proliferative retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness, including retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in children and diabetic retinopathy in adults. Retinopathy is characterized by an initial phase of vessel loss, leading to tissue ischemia and hypoxia, followed by sight threatening pathologic neovascularization in the second phase. Previously we found that Sirtuin1 (Sirt1), a metabolically dependent protein deacetylase, regulates vascular regeneration in a mouse model of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy (OIR), as neuronal depletion of Sirt1 in retina worsens retinopathy.

Author(s): 
Michan, Shaday
Juan, Aimee M.
Hurst, Christian G.
Cui, Zhenghao
Evans, Lucy P.
Hatton, Colman J.
Pei, Dorothy T.
Ju, Meihua
Sinclair, David A.
Smith, Lois E. H.
Chen, Jing

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