Retinal Ganglion Cells

Publication Title: 
Biomaterials

Electronic retinal implants for the blind are already a market reality. A world wide effort is underway to find the technology that offers the best combination of performance and safety for potential patients. Our approach is to construct an epi-retinally targeted device entirely encapsulated in diamond to maximise longevity and biocompatibility. The stimulating array of our device comprises a monolith of electrically insulating diamond with thousands of hermetic, microscale nitrogen doped ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) feedthroughs.

Author(s): 
Hadjinicolaou, Alex E.
Leung, Ronald T.
Garrett, David J.
Ganesan, Kumaravelu
Fox, Kate
Nayagam, David A. X.
Shivdasani, Mohit N.
Meffin, Hamish
Ibbotson, Michael R.
Prawer, Steven
O'Brien, Brendan J.
Publication Title: 
Current biology: CB

As the ear has dual functions for audition and balance, the eye has a dual role in detecting light for a wide range of behavioral and physiological functions separate from sight. These responses are driven primarily by stimulation of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs) that are most sensitive to short-wavelength ( approximately 480 nm) blue light and remain functional in the absence of rods and cones. We examined the spectral sensitivity of non-image-forming responses in two profoundly blind subjects lacking functional rods and cones (one male, 56 yr old; one female, 87 yr old).

Author(s): 
Zaidi, Farhan H.
Hull, Joseph T.
Peirson, Stuart N.
Wulff, Katharina
Aeschbach, Daniel
Gooley, Joshua J.
Brainard, George C.
Gregory-Evans, Kevin
Rizzo, Joseph F.
Czeisler, Charles A.
Foster, Russell G.
Moseley, Merrick J.
Lockley, Steven W.
Publication Title: 
Science Translational Medicine

In humans, modulation of circadian rhythms by light is thought to be mediated primarily by melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells, not rods or cones. Melanopsin cells are intrinsically blue light-sensitive but also receive input from visual photoreceptors. We therefore tested in humans whether cone photoreceptors contribute to the regulation of circadian and neuroendocrine light responses.

Author(s): 
Gooley, Joshua J.
Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.
Brainard, George C.
Kronauer, Richard E.
Czeisler, Charles A.
Lockley, Steven W.
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