PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent literature (1st January 2014-1st February 2015) on stimulant treatment programme evaluations, and highlight key areas for future programme development. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances have been made in addressing both sexual risks and stimulant use among gay and bisexual men in the United States, and in adapting evidence-based resource-intense interventions to real-world settings. Programme outcome measures increasingly include changes in substance use as well as health and wellbeing indicators and measures of risk.
Previous research has established conscientiousness as a predictor of longevity (H. S. Friedman et al., 1993; L. R. Martin & H. S. Friedman, 2000). To better understand this relationship, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of conscientiousness-related traits and the leading behavioral contributors to mortality in the United States (tobacco use, diet and activity patterns, excessive alcohol use, violence, risky sexual behavior, risky driving, suicide, and drug use).
In the past decade, the growing field of telomere science has opened exciting new avenues for understanding the cellular and molecular substrates of stress and stress-related aging processes over the lifespan. Shorter telomere length is associated with advancing chronological age and also increased disease morbidity and mortality. Emerging studies suggest that stress accelerates the erosion of telomeres from very early in life and possibly even influences the initial (newborn) setting of telomere length.
Since the late 1970s when the first cases of HIV/AIDS were identified in Africa, there has been an upsurge of research on the epidemic. Although religious involvement may be germane to AIDS protective and risk behavior, few of these studies deal with religion and AIDS. This article contributes to the discourse on religion and health in Africa by analysing the interrelationship between religion and AIDS behavior in Ghana, a West African country at the early stages of the AIDS epidemic, and one where religious activities are more pronounced.
CONTEXT: Since 1990, HIV infection in Brazil has spread among the heterosexual population, particularly in the north. Containment of the epidemic can be informed by a better understanding of men's sexual risk behavior. METHODS: Logistic, Poisson and multilevel logit models were applied to data on married and cohabiting men who had participated in the 1996 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. RESULTS: Twelve percent of married or cohabiting men reported having had at least one extramarital partner in the previous 12 months; half of these had had two or more.
In less than a decade, Ascension Health has risen to the top tier of U.S. healthcare systems, with operating revenue that bests household names like Google and Amazon.com. Helping lead the system's meteoric rise is CEO Anthony Tersigni, left. "We are a ministry. We're not a business. We do business practices for one basic reason: We have bondholders who are counting on us to repay the bonds."
Though research has shown that religion provides a protective influence with respect to a number of health-related outcomes, little work has examined its influence on patterns of alcohol (especially binge drinking) and tobacco consumption among Latinos in Texas. Thus, we used a probability sample of Texas adults to test this relationship via logistic regression. Our results revealed that clear distinctions emerge on the basis of both denomination and frequency of attendance.
PURPOSE: This study examined the short-term effects of risky driving motor vehicle television commercials on risk-positive attitudes, emotions and risky driving inclinations in video-simulated critical road traffic situations among males and females, within an experimental design. METHOD: Participants were randomly assigned to one of three televised commercial advertising conditions embedded in a television show: a risky driving motor vehicle commercial condition, a non-risky driving motor vehicle commercial condition and a control non-motor vehicle commercial condition.
Quad-bike incidents are a major cause of occupational injury and fatality on farms warranting health and safety attention. As part of a larger study, we carried out a face-to-face survey with 216 farmers in New Zealand. We quantitatively identified farmers' propensity for risk-taking, unrealistic optimism, and fatalism as risk factors in quad-bike loss-of-control events (LCEs). The purpose of the analysis presented in this article was to use these same farmers' recollections of LCEs to explore the a priori constructs in more detail using qualitative methods.