RNA Interference

Publication Title: 
Nature

Calorie restriction extends lifespan in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. In yeast, the SIR2 gene mediates the life-extending effects of calorie restriction. Here we show that the mammalian SIR2 orthologue, Sirt1 (sirtuin 1), activates a critical component of calorie restriction in mammals; that is, fat mobilization in white adipocytes. Upon food withdrawal Sirt1 protein binds to and represses genes controlled by the fat regulator PPAR-gamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), including genes mediating fat storage.

Author(s): 
Picard, FrÈdÈric
Kurtev, Martin
Chung, Namjin
Topark-Ngarm, Acharawan
Senawong, Thanaset
Machado De Oliveira, Rita
Leid, Mark
McBurney, Michael W.
Guarente, Leonard
Publication Title: 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Replicative senescence in human fibroblasts is accompanied with alterations of various biological processes, including the impaired function of the proteasome. The proteasome is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins. Due to its latter function, proteasome is also considered a representative secondary antioxidant cellular mechanism. Nrf2 is a basic transcription factor responsible for the regulation of the cellular antioxidant response that has also been shown to regulate several proteasome subunits in mice.

Author(s): 
Kapeta, Suzanne
Chondrogianni, Niki
Gonos, Efstathios S.
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

As in the case of aging, many degenerative disorders also result from progressive mitochondrial deterioration and cellular damage accumulation. Therefore, preventing damage accumulation may delay aging and help to prevent degenerative disorders, especially those associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans a mild mitochondrial dysfunction prolongs the lifespan.

Author(s): 
Torgovnick, Alessandro
Schiavi, Alfonso
Testi, Roberto
Ventura, Natascia
Publication Title: 
PloS One

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that activation of autophagy increases the lifespan of organisms from yeast to flies. In contrast to the lifespan extension effect in lower organisms, it has been reported that overexpression of unc-51-like kinase 3 (ULK3), the mammalian homolog of autophagy-specific gene 1 (ATG1), induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts. Therefore, we assessed whether the activation of autophagy would genuinely induce premature senescence in human cells.

Author(s): 
Kang, Hyun Tae
Lee, Ki Baek
Kim, Sung Young
Choi, Hae Ri
Park, Sang Chul
Publication Title: 
PloS One

Iron is essential for organisms. It is mainly utilized in mitochondria for biosynthesis of iron-sulfur clusters, hemes and other cofactors. Mitoferrin 1 and mitoferrin 2, two homologues proteins belonging to the mitochondrial solute carrier family, are required for iron delivery into mitochondria. Mitoferrin 1 is highly expressed in developing erythrocytes which consume a large amount of iron during hemoglobinization. Mitoferrin 2 is ubiquitously expressed, whose functions are less known.

Author(s): 
Ren, Yaguang
Yang, Su
Tan, Guoqiang
Ye, Wei
Liu, Danhui
Qian, Xu
Ding, Zhongying
Zhong, Yuhong
Zhang, Jingrui
Jiang, Dandan
Zhao, Yuhong
Lu, Jianxin
Publication Title: 
Experimental Gerontology

Severe mitochondria deficiency leads to a number of devastating degenerative disorders, yet, mild mitochondrial dysfunction in different species, including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, can have pro-longevity effects. This apparent paradox indicates that cellular adaptation to partial mitochondrial stress can induce beneficial responses, but how this is achieved is largely unknown. Complete absence of frataxin, the mitochondrial protein defective in patients with Friedreich's ataxia, is lethal in C.

Author(s): 
Schiavi, Alfonso
Torgovnick, Alessandro
Kell, Alison
Megalou, Evgenia
Castelein, Natascha
Guccini, Ilaria
Marzocchella, Laura
Gelino, Sara
Hansen, Malene
Malisan, Florence
CondÚ, Ivano
Bei, Roberto
Rea, Shane L.
Braeckman, Bart P.
Tavernarakis, Nektarios
Testi, Roberto
Ventura, Natascia
Publication Title: 
Ageing Research Reviews

In this review, we describe recent advances in the field of RNA regulatory biology and relate these advances to aging science. We introduce a new term, RNA surveillance, an RNA regulatory process that is conserved in metazoans, and describe how RNA surveillance represents molecular cross-talk between two emerging RNA regulatory systems-RNA interference and RNA editing. We discuss how RNA surveillance mechanisms influence mRNA and microRNA expression and activity during lifespan.

Author(s): 
Montano, Monty
Long, Kimberly
Publication Title: 
Oncology Reports

SIRT1 is the human orthologue of SIR2, a conserved NAD-dependent protein deacetylase that regulates longevity in yeast and in Caenorhabditis elegans. Overexpression of SIRT1 in cancer tissue, compared with normal tissue, has been demonstrated, suggesting that SIRT1 may act as a tumor promoter. The function of SIRT1 in liver cancer has not been elucidated. In the present study, SIRT1 re-expression or knockdown was induced in hepatoma cell lines and liver normal cell lines.

Author(s): 
Wang, Hanning
Liu, Hao
Chen, Kaiyun
Xiao, Jinfeng
He, Ke
Zhang, Jinqian
Xiang, Guoan
Publication Title: 
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

Homo sapiens longevity assurance homologue 2 of yeast LAG1 (LASS2), also known as tumor metastasis suppressor gene 1 (TMSG1), is a newly found tumor metastasis suppressor gene in 1999. Preliminary studies showed that it not only suppressed tumor growth but also closely related to tumor metastasis, however, its molecular mechanisms is still unclear.

Author(s): 
Xu, Xiaoyan
You, Jiangfeng
Pei, Fei
Publication Title: 
Molecular Aspects of Medicine

While the eukaryotic genome is the same throughout all somatic cells in an organism, there are specific structures and functions that discern one type of cell from another. These differences are due to the cell's unique gene expression patterns that are determined during cellular differentiation. Interestingly, these cell-specific gene expression patterns can be affected by an organism's environment throughout its lifetime leading to phenotypical changes that have the potential of altering risk of some diseases.

Author(s): 
Tammen, Stephanie A.
Friso, Simonetta
Choi, Sang-Woon

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