RNA, Untranslated

Publication Title: 
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology

Studies in model organisms suggest that aged cells can be functionally rejuvenated, but whether this concept applies to human skin is unclear. Here we apply 3'-end sequencing for expression quantification ("3-seq") to discover the gene expression program associated with human photoaging and intrinsic skin aging (collectively termed "skin aging"), and the impact of broadband light (BBL) treatment.

Author(s): 
Chang, Anne Lynn S.
Bitter, Patrick H.
Qu, Kun
Lin, Meihong
Rapicavoli, Nicole A.
Chang, Howard Y.
Publication Title: 
Scientific Reports

Centenarians exhibit extreme longevity and a remarkable compression of morbidity. They have a unique capacity to maintain homeostatic mechanisms. Since small non-coding RNAs (including microRNAs) are implicated in the regulation of gene expression, we hypothesised that longevity of centenarians may reflect alterations in small non-coding RNA expression. We report the first comparison of microRNAs expression profiles in mononuclear cells from centenarians, octogenarians and young individuals resident near Valencia, Spain.

Author(s): 
Serna, Eva
Gambini, Juan
Borras, Consuelo
Abdelaziz, Kheira M.
Mohammed, Kheira
Belenguer, Angel
Sanchis, Paula
Avellana, Juan A.
Rodriguez-MaÒas, Leocadio
ViÒa, Jose
Publication Title: 
Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology

Telomeres are maintained by the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) enzyme telomerase, which replenishes telomeres through its unique mechanism of internal RNA-templated addition of telomeric DNA. Telomerase is active in most human cancers, typically because its core protein subunit, TERT, is up-regulated. Although the major known function of telomerase in cancer is to replenish telomeric DNA and maintain cell immortality, the regulation of the RNA component of telomerase is not well understood.

Author(s): 
Li, S.
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

It is now evident that nonprotein coding RNA (ncRNA) plays a critical role in regulating the timing and rate of protein translation. The potential importance of ncRNAs is suggested by the observation that the complexity of an organism is poorly correlated with its number of protein coding genes, yet highly correlated with its number of ncRNA genes, and that in the human genome only a small fraction (2-3%) of genetic transcripts are actually translated into proteins. In this review, we discuss several examples of known RNA mechanisms for the regulation of protein synthesis.

Author(s): 
Perkins, D. O.
Jeffries, C.
Sullivan, P.
Publication Title: 
Psychiatria Danubina

OBJECTIVES: Variation in the human genome may explain genetic contributions to complex traits and common diseases. FINDINGS: Until recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms were thought to be the most prevalent form of interindividual genetic variation. However, structural genomic rearrangements such as deletions, duplications, and inversions lead to variation in gene copy number and contribute even more to genomic diversity. Other sources of genomic variation include noncoding genes, pseudogenes, and mobile genetic elements (transposons).

Author(s): 
Bureti?-Tomljanovi?, Alena
Tomljanovi?, Drasko
Publication Title: 
Brain Research

Central nervous system (CNS) development, homeostasis, stress responses, and plasticity are all mediated by epigenetic mechanisms that modulate gene expression and promote selective deployment of functional gene networks in response to complex profiles of interoceptive and environmental signals. Thus, not surprisingly, disruptions of these epigenetic processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of neurological and psychiatric diseases.

Author(s): 
Qureshi, Irfan A.
Mattick, John S.
Mehler, Mark F.
Publication Title: 
Progress in Brain Research

There are numerous examples of sex differences in brain and behavior and in susceptibility to a broad range of brain diseases. For example, gene expression is sexually dimorphic during brain development, adult life, and aging. These differences are orchestrated by the interplay between genetic, hormonal, and environmental influences. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin these differences have not been fully elucidated.

Author(s): 
Qureshi, Irfan A.
Mehler, Mark F.
Publication Title: 
Molecular Psychiatry

Epigenetic studies of DNA and histone modifications represent a new and important activity in molecular investigations of human disease. Our previous epigenome-wide scan identified numerous DNA methylation differences in post-mortem brain samples from individuals affected with major psychosis. In this article, we present the results of fine mapping DNA methylation differences at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex group 9 gene (HCG9) in bipolar disorder (BPD).

Author(s): 
Kaminsky, Z.
Tochigi, M.
Jia, P.
Pal, M.
Mill, J.
Kwan, A.
Ioshikhes, I.
Vincent, J. B.
Kennedy, J. L.
Strauss, J.
Pai, S.
Wang, S.-C.
Petronis, A.
Publication Title: 
Epigenetics

IGF2 is a paternally expressed imprinted gene with an important role in development and brain function. Allele-specific expression of IGF2 is regulated by DNA methylation at three differentially methylated regions (DMRs) spanning the IGF2/H19 domain on human 11p15.5. We have comprehensively assessed DNA methylation and genotype across the three DMRs and the H19 promoter using tissue from a unique collection of well-characterized and neuropathologically-dissected post-mortem human cerebellum samples (n = 106) and frontal cortex samples (n = 51).

Author(s): 
Pidsley, Ruth
Dempster, Emma
Troakes, Claire
Al-Sarraj, Safa
Mill, Jonathan
Publication Title: 
Trends in genetics: TIG

In the decade following the publication of the Human Genome, noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have reshaped our understanding of the broad landscape of genome regulation. During this period, natural antisense transcripts (NATs), which are transcribed from the opposite strand of either protein or non-protein coding genes, have vaulted to prominence. Recent findings have shown that NATs can exert their regulatory functions by acting as epigenetic regulators of gene expression and chromatin remodeling.

Author(s): 
Magistri, Marco
Faghihi, Mohammad Ali
St Laurent, Georges
Wahlestedt, Claes

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