RNA, Viral

Publication Title: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

BACKGROUND: Despite advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, major challenges remain in achieving access, retention, and adherence. Our inner-city HIV clinical practice in Baltimore has a diverse patient population with high rates of poverty, black race, and injection drug use (IDU), providing us the opportunity to compare health process and outcomes.

Author(s): 
Moore, Richard D.
Keruly, Jeanne C.
Bartlett, John G.
Publication Title: 
PLoS pathogens

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. First described as posttranscriptional gene regulators in eukaryotic hosts, virus-encoded miRNAs were later uncovered. It is now apparent that diverse virus families, most with DNA genomes, but at least some with RNA genomes, encode miRNAs. While deciphering the functions of viral miRNAs has lagged behind their discovery, recent functional studies are bringing into focus these roles.

Author(s): 
Kincaid, Rodney P.
Sullivan, Christopher S.
Publication Title: 
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Dengue virus (DENV) is considered to be the most important arthropod-borne viral disease and causes more than 100 million human infections annually. To further characterize primary DENV infection in vivo, rhesus macaques were infected with DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, or DENV-4 and clinical parameters, as well as specificity and longevity of serologic responses, were assessed. Overt clinical symptoms were not present after infection.

Author(s): 
Hickey, Andrew C.
Koster, Jacob A.
Thalmann, Claudia M.
Hardcastle, Kathy
Tio, Phaik-Hooi
Cardosa, Mary J.
Bossart, Katharine N.
Publication Title: 
Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology

BACKGROUND: Patients with thalassemia major are largely transfusion dependent and are thus exposed to a variety of risks such as transmission of infectious diseases, iron overload and alloimmunization. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of human immune deficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and red cell antibodies among multiple-transfused thalassemic patients in and around the national capital region.

Author(s): 
Makroo, Raj Nath
Arora, Jatinder Singh
Chowdhry, Mohit
Bhatia, Aakanksha
Thakur, Uday Kumar
Minimol, Antony
Publication Title: 
Journal of Molecular Biology
Author(s): 
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Molecular Biology
Author(s): 
Blackburn, E. H.
Publication Title: 
PLoS neglected tropical diseases

BACKGROUND: An unexpectedly high seroprevalence and pathogenic potential of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) have been observed in certain malaria-endemic countries in parallel with local use of chloroquine (CQ) as first-line treatment for malaria. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of CQ and other common antimalarial drugs on B19V infection in vitro and the possible epidemiological consequences for children from Papua New Guinea (PNG).

Author(s): 
Bönsch, Claudia
Kempf, Christoph
Mueller, Ivo
Manning, Laurens
Laman, Moses
Davis, Timothy M. E.
Ros, Carlos
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eclipta alba, traditionally known as bhringraj, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 1000 years in India. It is used for the treatment of infective hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, liver enlargement and other ailments of liver and gall bladder in India. The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-hepatitis C virus activity present in the Eclipta alba extract, perform bioassay based fractionation and identify anti-HCV phytochemicals from the active fractions.

Author(s): 
Manvar, Dinesh
Mishra, Mahesh
Kumar, Suriender
Pandey, Virendra N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Ethnopharmacology

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eclipta alba, traditionally known as bhringraj, has been used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 1000 years in India. It is used for the treatment of infective hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, liver enlargement and other ailments of liver and gall bladder in India. The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-hepatitis C virus activity present in the Eclipta alba extract, perform bioassay based fractionation and identify anti-HCV phytochemicals from the active fractions.

Author(s): 
Manvar, Dinesh
Mishra, Mahesh
Kumar, Suriender
Pandey, Virendra N.
Publication Title: 
Journal of Virology

Wild-type Indiana virus transcribed four 11- to 14-nucleotide-long, 5' N-gene mRNA sequences in vitro. The amount of oligonucleotides synthesized relative to leader by wild-type virions varied inversely with the salt concentration of the transcription reaction. Reduced oligonucleotide synthesis by nucleocapsids at all salt concentrations tested and a comparison of the proteins remaining bound to the template of nucleocapsids and virions transcribed in different NaCl concentrations suggested that the matrix (M) protein regulates oligonucleotide synthesis.

Author(s): 
Pinney, D. F.
Emerson, S. U.

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